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澳洲留学生Business Management Essay写作范文

时间:2018-04-25 08:48来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:cinq 点击:
本文是澳洲留学生Business Management Essay写作范文,主要内容是讨论组织学问是如何创造可持续的竞争优势。
批判性地讨论学习组织学问如何在组织内创造一个稳固和可持续的竞争优势
还讨论了产生组织常识的重要性,通过设计不同的学习机制和经验,将支撑一个强大的竞争优势。
大多数组织失败的原因在于,组织学习的障碍阻碍了组织的成长,最终使他们在市场上失去了战斗力。因此,一个成功的组织将是一个学习型组织,因为未来唯一强大而持久的竞争优势是学习能力比竞争对手快。竞争优势是难以模仿的常识、技能、资源和核心能力的拥有。稳健和可持续的竞争优势要求组织创造比竞争对手更可持续的核心能力。开发核心能力的方法必须通过组织学习来实现。

Critically discuss the extent of how the learning organisation culture helps in creating a robust and sustainable competitive advantage within an organisation? Also discuss the importance of generating organisational knowledge through the design of different learning mechanisms and experiences which will support a robust competitive advantage.
 
1.0 Introduction 概况
Hussein et al. (2016) investigated the life expectancy of large organizations and found that their average life expectancy is less than 40 years. Most of the reasons for the failure of most organizations lie in the fact that the obstacles to organizational learning have prevented the growth of organizations and eventually made them lose their battle in the market. Therefore, Feng and Hu (2017) concluded that a successful organization will be a learning organization, because the only robust and sustainable competitive advantage in the future is the ability to learn faster than its competitors. Somprach, Prasertcharoensuk, Ngang (2015) believed that competitive advantage is the possession of hard-to-imitate knowledge, skills, resources and core competencies. Robust and sustainable competitive advantage requires organizations to create core competencies more sustainably than their competitors. The way to develop core competencies must be achieved through organizational learning (Lyman et al., 2017). Learning is the basic means for an organization to develop and acquire skills and technologies that make up its core competencies. Therefore, the competitive advantage of organizations comes from organizational learning. Considering how to establish a learning organization and promote organizational learning so as to gain a competitive advantage, scholars give different opinions. One of the most influential opinions is to establish learning organisation culture. Learning organisation culture is a kind of corporate culture that encourages individual learning and self-transcendence (Shahzad, Xiu and Shahbaz, 2017). It is the organizational culture to promote the learning ability of employees in innovation and thus enhance the competitiveness of an organization (Saadat and Saadat, 2016). Currently the importance of learning organization culture (LOC) has been generally recognized, but about to what extent LOC can enhance competitive advantage of an organization, and what learning mechanisms and experiences will support a robust competitive advantage need to be further explored, which is the research aim of this study. This article first introduces the concepts of learning organization, organizational knowledge, learning mechanism, LOC. Then it analyzes the mechanisms of LOC in promoting competitive advantages of organizations. Finally, it makes recommendations on how to improve the deficiency of LOC for promoting organizational competitive advantages.
 
2.0 Main body 正文
2.1 Learning organization
International academic circles mainly define the concept of learning organization from three perspectives. First, from the perspective of competence and skill, Bingham and Conner (2010) stated that learning organization is an organization that continually improves its ability to create the future. In this organization, the members have to learn because learning has become part of life. In such kind of organizations, new and open modes of thinking are nurtured, and people learn how to learn together. From the perspective of learning and change, Hussein et al. (2016) pointed out that learning organization is an organization that helps its members to learn and continually change the organization itself, and it creates a sustainable competitive advantage by effectively organizing change. From a cultural point of view, Shahzad, Xiu and Shahbaz (2017) defined learning organization as an organization that deeply embodies learning, adaptability and change in its organizational culture. The values, policies, practices and structures covered by its organizational culture can support the members to learn.
The above ideas define learning organization from different perspectives. All these definitions have their own rationality, but they also all have one-sidedness. However, from their point of view, it can be summarize some differences between learning organization and traditional organization. First, learning organization helps to promote employees’ active learning. In a traditional organization, employee learning is mostly passive and their learning enthusiasm is not high (Caffarella and Daffron, 2013; Beevers and Rea, 2016). Second, learning organizations not only emphasize employee learning, but also change organization structure and system into which is beneficial for employees' learning. In traditional organizations, the importance of employee learning is not fully understood and has not been greatly supported by organizations (Shea and Taylor, 2017). Third, corporate culture of learning organizations encourages continuous improvement of corporate behaviour and work practices, staff learning is lifelong, while in traditional organizations, employee learning is mostly short-term behaviour (Saadat and Saadat, 2016).
 
2.2 Organizational knowledge
Organizational knowledge refers to the knowledge that an organization possesses, including the knowledge generated by self-development within the organization and the knowledge that is useful for the survival and development of the organization outside of the organization (this part can be internalized as organizational knowledge) (Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick, 2006; Dalkir, 2011;). According to the classification of organizational knowledge, organizational knowledge is divided into four types: (1) know what, that is the knowledge about fact; (2) know why, it refers to the scientific theory of the natural principles and laws; (3) know how, it is the ability to do certain things; (4) know who, refers to the knowledge who knows and how to do, that is, to contact relevant experts and make effective use of their knowledge (Hislop, 2005; Dalkir, 2011; Barão et al., 2017). According to the existence form of organizational knowledge, organizational knowledge is divided into two categories: explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge (Barão et al., 2017), explicit knowledge is systemic knowledge that can be passed within and across organizations, it is protected by law; tacit knowledge is a type of knowledge that can only be understood in words.
Shahzad, Xiu and Shahbaz (2017) pointed out that the importance of organizational knowledge is recognized by more and more organizations, especially in the era of knowledge-based economy, organizations emphasize organizational learning and organizational knowledge, both are indispensable, through the interaction between the two to form the "joint force" that promotes the sustainable development of organizations. Organizational learning will not only change the quantity of organizational knowledge, but also promote the qualitative change of organizational knowledge (Hussein et al., 2016). Appropriate organizational learning can promote the evolution of organizational knowledge, thereby enhancing an organization's core competitiveness (Zhao, Feng and Hu, 2017).
 
2.3 organizational learning mechanism
One of the fundamental purposes of organizational learning is to establish a mechanism that learns experience from an organization inside and outside, it can produce, store, and search for knowledge, ultimately turning knowledge into a competitive advantage (Somprach, Prasertcharoensuk and Ngang, 2015; Beevers and Rea, 2016). Generally speaking, there are two kinds of organizational learning mechanisms, one is organization learning motivation mechanism, and the other is learning agent mechanism (Lyman et al., 2017).
Organization learning motivation mechanism is the driving force to ensure continuous organizational learning behaviour, this motivation can be broadly divided into two types, first is the outside factors, fierce competition that organizations face is an important factor to promote organizational learning (Shahzad, Xiu and Shahbaz, 2017). In a highly competitive environment, every organization must constantly learn to improve its ability to adapt to the environment. The second category is the institutional factors, such as learning promotion system within an organization, property rights system, human resources strategy, incentives and so on (Saadat and Saadat, 2016).
Organizational learning agency mechanism means that organizations can learn many useful knowledge and ideas through learning agents from customers, suppliers, scientific research institutions and even competitors (Barão et al., 2017). Then, by systematizing and systematizing the knowledge, the new knowledge can be shared by other members of the organization, and then the knowledge will be combined into products and services provided by the organization to form its robust and sustainable competitive advantage.
 
2.4 Learning organization culture  
Learning organization culture (LOC) is an organization culture of introduction of learning organization theory in the process of organization culture development, in order to guide organizations to grow into a learning organization (Hussein et al., 2016). LOC attaches great importance to human factors, especially the overall improvement of people's quality, it pays attention to the coordinated development of organizations and employees, it is the highest level of human-oriented management embodiment (Zhao, Feng and Hu, 2017). LOC is a kind of corporate culture that encourages individual learning and self-transcendence. It is a kind of organization culture that forms common values, improves mental model, and cultivates the ability of thinking systematically (Shahzad, Xiu and Shahbaz, 2017). It is a kind of organization culture that enhances innovation with learning ability and thus strengthens the competitiveness of organizations and employees. LOC provides a guarantee for learning organizations to grasp and accumulate organizational knowledge to form learning mechanisms, thereby increasing sustainable competitive advantage of organizations (Somprach, Prasertcharoensuk and Ngang, 2015; Beevers and Rea, 2016).


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