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如何写essay-UCD SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY PHILOSOPHY ESSAYS- Format

时间:2012-05-07 13:10来源:永利国际娱乐注册送56 编辑:PHILOSOPHY PHILOSOPH 点击:
UCD SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY PHILOSOPHY ESSAYS I. Required Format, II. Writing Guidelines, III. A Few Common Mistakes

UCD SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY PHILOSOPHY ESSAYS
I. Required Format, II. Writing Guidelines, III. A Few Common Mistakes
 
I. Required Format for Essays in Philosophy:
Essays must be typewritten; hand-written work cannot be accepted (medical-certified reasons aside).
Use double-spaced or one-and-a-half spacing. In 微软 Word, select ‘Double’ or ‘1.5 lines’ under Format/Paragraph/Line spacing.
The standard font size is 12. Do not type in 10 font (except perhaps footnotes) or in 16 font. Use ‘Times New Roman’ (or some other standard font). Don’t get fancy with fonts!
Indent the first line of all new paragraphs about 5 spaces; alternatively, insert an extra space between paragraphs and begin the new paragraph flush with the left margin.
Quotations of less than 2-3 lines are enclosed within quotation marks (“Mary had a little lamb”) and included within the text of your paper. Quotations longer than 2-3 lines (block-quotations) should be indented from the left margin, single-spaced, without quotation marks:
I am a sample block-quotation, indented from the margins. Block-quotations can be 10 or 12 font. Do not put quotation marks around block quotations and do not italicise (except where italics are in the original). Always provide a reference, either in parentheses or by footnote or endnote (Billingworth, 1968: p. 104).
Number all pages except title page, first page, endnotes and bibliography.
Italicise (or underline) book titles; use quotation marks for articles and chapters. So, Heidegger’s Being and Time [or Being and Time] but Quine’s ‘Two Dogmas of Empiricism’.
Proofread your essay for spelling errors and grammatical mistakes. Use your word processor’s spell-checker but don’t rely on it exclusively. It is difficult to eliminate errors completely (there may even be some in this document!) but do try.
You must submit two copies of your essay with the Philosophy essay cover sheet attached to one copy. Simply staple your essay in the top-left corner; no hard plastic cover sheets or folders are necessary.
The word-length for your essay (not including footnotes/endnotes or bibliography) will be specified for your year. Strict adherence to the word limit is mandatory. (微软 Word has a ‘word count’ facility under Tools on the toolbar.)
A properly presented bibliography is essential. Alphabetise the bibliography by author’s last name. Single-space each entry, with a blank line between entries. Use ed. for editor; trans. for translator. Leave yourself time to produce a correctly formatted bibliography. 
 

Bibliography and Referencing:(standard footnote/endnote method)
Alphabetise your bibliography by author’s last name (single space entries, double space between entries). The following are standard formats for the bibliography.
A book:Merton, Robert K. The Sociology of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.
An edited book:MacIntyre, A., ed. Hegel: A Collection of Critical Essays. London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1976.
An article in a journal:Dove, Kenley R. ‘Hegel’s Phenomenological Method’, Review of Metaphysics 23 No. 1 (Sept., 1969), pp. 615-41.
An essay or article in a book (by same author):Adorno, T. ‘Skoteinos, or How to read Hegel’, in Hegel: Three Studies (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993), pp. 89-148.
An article in an edited collection:Harris, H. S. ‘Hegel’s intellectual development to 1807’, in The Cambridge Companion to Hegel, edited by F. C. Beiser (Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 25-51.
Any claim you make in your text that is not your own idea must be referred to the relevant source. You may do this by putting the reference in parentheses at the end of the passage or by using a footnote. (Your computer’s word processor will have an ‘Insert Footnote/Endnote’ command that will take care of the numbering and location). Endnotes, if you use them, occur at the end of your main text, before the bibliography. Your first footnote reference gives the full source (omitting the publisher) and the page referred to. The author’s last name comes first in a bibliography; in footnotes then normal order prevails. 1 John Diamond, The Third Chimpanzee (London, 1983), p. 199.Where no confusion can arise (for example, where references are on the same page), subsequent references to the same book use ‘ibid.’ (‘in the same place’), followed by the page number. If intervening references to other works occur, use ‘op. cit.’ (‘in the work quoted’); however, do not send the reader back too many pages - if in doubt, use a full reference. Instead of using ‘ibid’ and ‘op. cit’ it is permissible to use an abbreviated version of the full reference, e.g. Diamond, p. 31.Samples: 2 ibid., p. 103. [this is a reference to Diamond’s book, above.] 3 Harry Loner, ‘Justice in a Lonely World’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 8 (3) (Oct. 1978), p. 4. 4 John Diamond, op. cit., p. 56. 5 Diamond, p. 31
 All INTERNET references must be cited using the full and accurate address! Cite the author’s name (if known), document title in quotation marks, the date visited, and the full HTTP or URL address: e.g., “http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/1pb/mud-history.html (5 Dec. 1994).”

II. General Guidelines for Writing Essays in Philosophy
1. The ESSAY TITLE and your THESIS; the INTRODUCTION and the CONCLUSION
If the assigned essay title is in the form of a question, your essay must answer the question. Here is a useful strategy for many philosophical essays: before you begin your essay, write down ‘Therefore…’ and complete the sentence as what will be the final sentence of your essay. This will be the thesis you are defending. (Note: some essay titles may require more exposition and interpretation rather than arguing for a thesis of your own; but even in these cases it is always a good idea to have a clear focus for your essay, for example, an aspect of the topic you will critically examine.)
Suppose the essay title is: “Is Sartre’s conception of freedom defensible?” Begin with your hunch that, on balance, it either is or is not plausible. Your essay might end: "Therefore Sartre’s conception of freedom, all things considered, is not plausible." That is your thesis. Your concluding paragraph will sum up the argument you have mounted in support of your thesis. The opening paragraph(s) of your essay should:(1) Introduce the topic. Avoid vague generalities. Get right to the main issue. (2) State your thesis. ‘In this essay I will argue [contend, show] that Sartre’s conception of freedom is not plausible.’ Your thesis statement is crucial. (3) Outline your strategy. State explicitly how your essay will develop, step by step. (You won’t know this precisely until after your next-to-last draft.) So, for example, "First, I clarify Sartre’s conception of freedom, focusing on so&so. Secondly, I raise two familiar but mistaken objections to Sartre’s view and suggest how Sartre could respond to them. Finally, however, I will raise what I consider to be the strongest objection to Sartre’s position: his conception of so&so is inconsistent."Even if your essay is largely expository (e.g., if the essay title was: ‘What is Sartre’s conception of freedom?’), you should still have a thesis: a particular slant, or focus or strategy. For example, "In this essay I shall highlight the underlying role of so&so in Sartre’s analysis."
2. CONTENT and PHILOSOPHICAL ARGUMENTS
Philosophical essays of all kinds consist largely in providing reasons for believing your thesis or interpretation to be true: yours is the correct view or interpretation of the issue or philosopher under consideration. It’s about arguments: reasons or evidence for conclusions. Why, for example, is Sartre’s conception of freedom supposedly implausible (or plausible)?
You should look for reasons both for and against the thesis you are defending. You will find arguments in primary sources, secondary sources, the lectures, and in your own reflections. Even if your essay is largely expository (explaining a philosopher’s view, for instance), you will still be presenting evidence—analysing passages, for instance—for your particular interpretations.
Here is an invaluable strategy for good philosophical essay writing: whenever your essay makes a claim, reflect on how an opponent might object to that claim. If you raise an objection to Sartre’s view, devote a paragraph to how he might attempt to respond to your objection; and then evaluate whether and why such a response succeeds or fails.

3. OTHER TIPS and STRATEGIES
Make your essay as concise and incisive as possible. Write a first draft that is longer than the required length and then delete anything irrelevant or superfluous to your main purpose.
You need to go beyond simply reporting or paraphrasing what a philosopher said. If you assert that a philosopher holds a specified view, establish your claim on the basis of evidence (detailed analysis of passages is useful). And you need to go beyond simply reporting how you yourself feel about the matter: back up your claims with reasons and evidence, and fend off possible objections. Finally, you need to go beyond simply displaying what various commentators think about the topic. Do use secondary sources, of course, but ultimately your tutor or lecturer is interested in your best reasons for adopting your conclusion.
If you quote be careful to use the exact words and punctuation of the original text! Give the appropriate page references. If you add italics that are not in the quote itself, insert ‘emphasis [or italics] added’ after your page reference; for example: " … " (Putnam, 1985a, p. 17; italics added). If you insert a clarifying phrase in a quote, use square brackets: ‘[clarifying phrase]’ to indicate that the addition is not in the original. Use ellipses for omissions: ‘…’ (3 dots only, not ‘……..’; however, use 4 dots if the omitted material includes a full stop). Whenever you use a quotation from an author, always explain, analyse, or comment upon the claims made in the quote. Better still, put the philosopher’s ideas into your own words and then relate the ideas to your wider argument.



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