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Literature Review怎么写?留学生论文Literature Review写作范文参考

时间:2017-03-24 10:48来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:cinq 点击:
本文是留学生论文文献综述Literature Review写作范文参考,本章回顾了与本研究相关的理论和实证研究,从而指出本研究的理论创新之处。
萨拉蒙说明非政府组织在社会导向和社会功能方面:“这是一个非盈利性志愿给公民和组织在地方、国家和国际水平。一个由区人民的利益,非政府组织提供各种服务的即插即用功能主义(反映问题,关心的公民到政府监督和鼓励政策,在社区一级。本说明说明的经典理论在国家与社会分离的美国市场。
考虑到非营利组织的定义,萨拉蒙意见有一定的权威。实证研究和分析后,对非营利组织的导热,在超过40个国家,萨拉蒙把经营结构的定义是其中的五个特征:非营利组织的结构和运作模式1。A组的官方或非官方的某些人或组织结构关系;2。私人的一部分,即非政府机构;3。无利润分配;4。自治;5。这样的支撑和自愿,沃尔夫之间的关系分析的非营利组织和政府的存在是必要的把“政府失效理论”。他相信从整个社会的角度,政府,非营利组织和市场是重要的方法满足公民的需求。由于他们的功能限制的自相互作用的影响。特别是,当政府和市场的位置,一些公共品和公共职能,非营利组织的存在往往有价值。提出我国非营利组织存在的情况基本符合的理论。
 
Chapter 2 Literature Review
 
2.1 Introduction of this chapter
This chapter reviews theory and empirical research related to this study, so as to point out the theoretical innovation of this study.

2.2 Theory
2.2.1 Concept of non-profit organization (NPO)
Salamon and Anheier (1997) explained non-governmental organizations from the aspects of social orientation and social function: “It is a kind of non-profit and voluntary citizen organization in local, national or international level. Pushed by people with same interests, non-governmental organizations offer various services and play a role in humanitarianism, reflect the problems concerned by the citizens to the government, and supervise policies and encourage to take part in the community level......” (Salamon and Anheier, 1997). This explanation interprets the classical theory on the separation of nation, market and society. 
Considering the definition of NPO, Salamon and Achier’s (1999) opinion has a certain authority. After conducting empirical researches and analysis on NPO in more than 40 countries, Salamon and Achier (1999) put forward the structural-operational definition, which stressed the five features of NPO from structure and operation mode: 1. a certain people groups of official or unofficial organization or structured relationship; 2. private part, i.e. non-governmental organs; 3. None profit distributing; 4. self-governing; 5. voluntarily constituted and supported (Salamon and Achier, 1999) 
Wolf (1990) analyzed the relationship between non-profit organizations and the government by demonstrating the necessity of existence of NPO. Wolf (1990) put forward “government failure theory”. He believed that from the perspective of whole society, the government, NPO and market were the important approaches to satisfy citizens’ individual demands. Due to their limits on self-functions, mutual substitution effects existed among them. Especially, when the government and market lacked some public goods and public functions, NPO had their existence value thereby (Wolf, 1990). What such theory proposes basically meets with the existence situation of NPO in China. 
On the other hand, in accordance with the distinctions for profit organizations and NPO, Wolf (1990) believed that for profit organizations have a certain limit from the aspect of constraint force allocation. NPO does not have the characteristic and influence of constraint force allocation. Such important characteristics not only differentiate for profit organizations from NPO, but also play an important supporting role on wining social resources for NPO, and giving play to the social function of NPO (Wolf, 1990).
Based on many scholars’ researches, we could find that, when scholars define and use the word of “non-profit organization”, they always expand based on two basic attributes, i.e. non-profit and non-governmental, and emphasize on agreeing that NPO have the important feature of “non-governmental”. Therefore, in the course of research, based on the actual situation of Red Cross Society of China, the author of this study especially stressed the relationship between Red Cross Society of China and Chinese Government, and emphasized on the strong dependency of Red Cross Society of China on the government. This special relationship between the Chinese Red Cross and the Chinese Government is an important dimension for the analysis of the problems existing in the Chinese Red Cross.

2.2.2 Concept and basic feature of public trust
Li (2011) thought that trust means putting self-interests in the risk of other people’s dishonesty, fault or failure. Trust relationship will inevitably undertake such risk. The public is the supporter and capital provider of NPO establishment; interest relationship generates along with the trust risk. Donors, due to the limit on ability and time, could not help others to realize wishes, therefore, they provide goods and materials for NPO, entrust NPO to realize their wishes, public trust is generated thereby (Li, 2011). From the perspective of interest relationship, when the actions and results of NPO satisfy the public’s expectation, the public trust will be reinforced; on the contrary, when the public is disappointed in the things done by NPO, the subjective wishes giving trust is reduced, and the public trust is weakened inevitably (Li, 2011). Meanwhile, public trust exists in social environment and social relationship, therefore, the influence of social environment shall not be ignored. 
Speaking of the concept of public trust, its core is trust. Regarding trust, most scholars tend to regard trust as a kind of psychological anticipation (Li, 2014). Three problems, i.e. “who trust”, “trust who”, “why trust”, exist in the trust relationship.
On the statement, the author of this study was apt to agree with Zheng’s (2001) opinion. From the perspective of psychology, Zheng (2001) believed that trust belongs to a kind of irrational behavior, especially being affected by external factors, which results in a certain uncertainty and risk for trust. Regarding the expression of trust, trust psychology is always reflected and proofed through trust actions under special circumstance, for example, offer support in the attitude, issue supporting speech, or provide help on the action (Yang, 2014). The relationship between trust psychology and trust action is causal relationship that psychology is the cause, and action is the result (Zheng, 2011). In this study, the author thought that there are many similarities on the understanding of trust, that is external factors will have huge influences on other people’s consciousness. There is an idiom “repeat what others have said” in China (Li, 2014), i.e. one people follows and believes other one’s word or opinion no matter what the word is or what the opinion is. And the idiom “a repeated slander makes others believe” states that when many people set forth the same opinion, other people are apt to believe this opinion. Trust is affected by the external factors so much. It also indirectly illustrates that people’s trust is always wrong or is misguided. In “Guo Meimei event”, the phenomenon that the public was misguided existed (Li, 2014). 
The above theories on public trust are mainly from two aspects to expound the causes of public trust. First is that the behavior of NPO does not meet what the public expects and needs, which leads to the loss of public trust. To solve this problem, NPO needs to improve its management, making their behavior conform to and meet the needs of the public. Second, the influence of social and public opinion environment on public trust, the misunderstanding of the public caused by incorrect information can also harm public trust of NPO. To solve this problem, NPO needs to communicate with the public.

2.2.3 The theory of organization externalization
The theory of organization externalization was conceived by Meyer and Rowan in the 1970s, Meyer and Rowan (1977) thought that the aims, objectives, departments, posts, functions and other contents of an organization determined based on an organization should be detailed and clear, there should be a close contact, mutual cooperation between various departments to form an organic whole to achieve organizational goals. However, an organization in the actual operation process is often inconsistent with its aims and objectives, and sometimes it is even contrary to its aims and objectives, so there has been the appearance of the situation of organization externalization. In addition, scholars such as Wolf (1990) noted that for the realization of organizational objectives, organizational elements are connected through their actual activities, they should act in unity, their paces should be consistent, their forms and their actual activities are closely linked to work together to achieve the desired effect. However, it has been found through Wolf’s (1990) study that these organizational elements are not closely linked, most of them are loosely linked, which often leads to that an organization's decision-making is not implemented, the operating system rules are often violated, evaluation and inspection systems are often abandoned.
Red Cross Society of China (Hereinafter referred to as the Red Cross) as a social aid group has a clear phenomenon of organization externalization. First, considering from the perspective of organizational form, although the Red Cross is defined as a social assistance group by the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Red Cross Society", its members are included in the national administrative system of administrative institutions, it is more like a government department. Second, judging from the operation process, there is the existence of low efficiency, bureaucracy and other undesirable phenomena in the daily work of the Red Cross, and these undesirable phenomena is precisely contrary to the purpose of the Red Cross, resulting in the phenomenon of organization externalization of the Red Cross.


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