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Literatu Rereview写作中的时态问题

时间:2018-10-31 16:39来源:未知 编辑:quanlei_cai 点击:
在英语论文写作中,时态正确是最基本的要求,但也是最容易出问题的地方。特别是在写Literatu Rereview,由于涉及到的资料类型较多,表述不同资料的时态又不一致,很容易混淆,甚至出现不合适或者错误的地方。不过Literatu Rereview是最常见的论文类型之一,即使时态较为麻烦,也需要牢牢掌握。下面详细先容Literatu Rereview中最常用的三种时态,并通过实例分析时态在Literatu Rereview中的灵活运用。 Literatu Rereview中最常用的时态是一般现在时、一般过去时和现在完成时。使用不同的时态会给句子的意义带来变化。 1. 先容一般性资料、现象或普遍事实时,句子的主要动
在英语论文写作中,时态正确是最基本的要求,但也是最容易出问题的地方。特别是在写Literatu Rereview,由于涉及到的资料类型较多,表述不同资料的时态又不一致,很容易混淆,甚至出现不合适或者错误的地方。不过Literatu Rereview是最常见的论文类型之一,即使时态较为麻烦,也需要牢牢掌握。下面详细先容Literatu Rereview中最常用的三种时态,并通过实例分析时态在Literatu Rereview中的灵活运用。
 
Literatu Rereview中最常用的时态是一般现在时、一般过去时和现在完成时。使用不同的时态会给句子的意义带来变化。
1. 先容一般性资料、现象或普遍事实时,句子的主要动词多使用一般现在时。如:
A Cryptocurrency is a peer-to-peer digital exchange system in which cryptography is used to generate and distribute currency units.
2. 引述其他学者过去某个时间所做过的某一项具体的研究时,用一般过去时。如:
More recently, Yatskar et al. (2014) proposed to generate descriptions from densely-labeled images, which incorporate object, attribute, action, and scene annotations.
(请注意:定语从句中的资料为普遍事实,所以谓语动词用了一般现在时。)
3. 描述特定研究领域中最近的某种趋势,或者强调表示某些“最近”发生的事件对现在的影响时,常采用现在完成时。如:
In the last decade graphene has emerged as an exciting new material, with potential to impact many areas of science and technology.
大家在撰写综述类文章时,不仅要对所涉及领域的研究现状进行概括和评述,还要对未来发展趋势进行合理的预测,所采用的时态种类尤为丰富。
 
下面大家以一篇时态使用非常有代表性的综述类文章Multiprocess 3D printing for increasing component functionality为例,看看编辑选用具体时态的语境和用意。该综述发表在2016年的《科学》杂志上,时态的交替使用非常有代表性。除了以上三种最为常用的时态之外,还使用了现在进行时、现在完成进行时和一般将来时。
摘要
Layer-by-layer deposition of materials to manufacture parts—better known as three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing—has been flourishing as a fabrication process in the past several years(前半句谓语动词选用现在完成进行时,意在指出3D打印的蓬勃发展不仅从几年前持续到现在,而且这种趋势还将持续下去) and now can create complex geometries for use as models, assembly fixtures, and production molds(后半句谓语为现在时情态动词+原形动词,先容3D打印现在可以实现的功能,是众所周知的事实). Increasing interest has focused on the use of this technology for direct manufacturing of production parts(现在完成时先容到目前为止该领域已经取得的成果); however, it remains generally limited to single-material fabrication, which can limit the end-use functionality of the fabricated structures(此处用一般现在时指出当前存在的问题). The next generation of 3D printing will entail not only the integration of dissimilar materials but the embedding of active components(用一般将来时预测未来发展方向) in order to deliver functionality that was not possible previously(用一般过去时指出过去的状况). Examples could include arbitrarily shaped electronics with integrated microfluidic thermal management and intelligent prostheses custom-fit to the anatomy of a specific patient(此处情态动词could属于模糊限制语,要表达的不是过去发生的事,而是对未来应用前景的预测). We review the state of the art in multiprocess (or hybrid) 3D printing, in which complementary processes, both novel and traditional, are combined to advance the future of manufacturing(本句使用一般现在时,主句指出综述的重点内容,从句进行补充说明).
本篇综述文章摘要首句没有像大多数论文摘要那样在概述研究背景时使用现在完成时,而是选用了强调持续动作的现在完成进行时,非常契合3D打印领域的研究现状,不仅表明该技术方兴未艾,有很大的研究空间,还意味着相关科研成果会如雨后春笋般不断更新发展。此句的现在完成进行时与正文第一段中多处出现的现在进行时形成呼应,表明该领域的研究每时每刻都在不断地变化发展。之后用一般现在时指出该研究领域目前存在的问题,再用一般将来时预测未来发展方向。
 
正文第一段
Traditional manufacturing is well optimized for mass production of identical parts but can involve complex assembly steps, result in material waste, and incur substantial expense for low-volume production. Three-dimensional (3D) printing, a technology receiving considerable attention recently for direct part production, allows the creation of complex geometric shapes that can be mass-customized without a need for part-specific tooling such as dies or molds. Originally referred to by terms such as rapid prototyping, solid freeform fabrication, and others, this layer-by-layer fabrication methodology converts a precursor material in a spatially controlled manner to create a complex shape.(在上面几句中,编辑选用了一般现在时,意在指出该领域众所周知的事实和研究现状) As the technology has developed over the past three decades, both the spatial resolution and the diversity of usable materials have improved. These advancements have led to an increase in end-use production of consumer, aerospace, and biomedical devices as industry has recognized the potential opportunities offered by 3D printing for improving designs, reducing assembly requirements through part consolidation, and optimizing the manufacturing supply chain through point-of-use manufacturing.(这几句使用现在完成时来先容该领域科研人员已经取得的研究成果,强调其对现在的影响和作用) General Electric’s chief executive officer, Jeff Immelt, has recently stated that by 2020, the corporation plans to produce over 100,000 3D-printed parts for jet engines, and to meet these goals, General Electric plans a $3.5 billion investment in 3D printing (1). (此处尽管通用电气CEO发出声明的动作已经结束,主句动词state仍使用了现在完成时,而不是一般过去时,意在表明其声明内容与现在和未来相关;从句两个动词plan则用了一般现在时,表明该企业的计划已经提上日程)Simultaneously, as 3D printing patents are expiring, the costs of these systems are decreasing dramatically, and they now are becoming accessible to the general public. Collectively, these trends are leading to a democratization of manufacturing (2). 3D printing, now often referred to as additive manufacturing to emphasize production rather than prototyping (3), is evolving. (上面三句话的谓语动词连续使用了五处现在进行时,旨在强调3D打印技术的更新换代是一个连续不间断的过程,与摘要首句的完成进行时形成呼应)Figure 1 illustrates (展示和解读图表用一般现在时)the potential for fabricating end-use structures with embedded fluidic control printed from a traditional single-material 3D printer (powder bed fusion of electron beam–melted titanium) (4).
 
 
 
在上面的正文第一段中,编辑交替使用了一般现在时、现在完成时和现在进行时,主要目的是概述该领域的研究背景、先容研究现状,意图表达清晰,时态的选择与3D技术领域的发展现状非常契合。
 
正文第二段
One potentially disruptive step in the evolution of 3D printing will be to increase the functionality of the manufactured components.(此句为本段中心句,谓语动词选用一般将来时,旨在预测3D打印技术的未来发展方向) The 3D printing process can be started and stopped to incorporate complementary fabrication processes or embed subcomponents manufactured using traditional methods(此处使用情态动词can表明目前可以实现的功能); however, until recently, 3D printing has been generally relegated to the prototyping of single-material structures for form and fit evaluation (5).(现在完成时对前期研究进行概述点评,指出不足) The next generation of 3D printers will enable products with multifunctional capabilities, including combinations of features not possible with a single print material, produced within a unified, tooling-free, multiprocess printing environment.(预测未来的3D打印技术可以弥补这些不足) In this context, multiprocess (or hybrid) 3D printing is defined as additive manufacturing enhanced with complementary processes(一般现在时,用于解读专业术语). These complementary processes can include traditional manufacturing such as machining, cutting, dispensing, robotic placement, and more(情态动词can表明该技术当前可以覆盖的领域). This new approach represents a paradigm shift in which the goal is to fabricate, in a nonassembly process, multifunctional end-use devices, potentially combining electronic, electromagnetic, optical, fluidic, actuation, chemical, and thermal features simultaneously—all with the inherent geometric benefits of 3D printing(一般现在时,用于评述新技术的意义和贡献). Moreover, without tooling requirements, these advanced 3D printing technologies continue to leverage mass customization (6), through which, for instance, sophisticated biomedical devices can now be fabricated for the specific anatomy of a patient(一般现在时,指出当前发展趋势及可实现的功能). Figure 2 illustrates two examples of multifunctional devices that highlight the possibilities of using multiprocess 3D printing systems: (i) a gaming die that includes a processor, an accelerometer, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to enhance the outcome of a roll by illuminating the top surface (7) (Fig. 2A) and (ii) a periodic spiral antenna that allows for physical patterns of conductors and dielectrics with unprecedented geometries, which will inevitably provide new levels of performance in next-generation antennas (Fig. 2B).(本段最后一句解读图表,主要使用了一般现在时,最后在预测对未来可做出的贡献时选用了一般将来时)


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