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英国literature review范文演示:A study on tourism motivation of Chi

时间:2019-04-11 11:58来源:未知 编辑:anne 点击:
Literature review文献综述 1 Concept of tourism motivation对旅游动机的认识 旅游动机是推动人们旅游的直接驱动力,受旅游动机的刺激,人们在确定旅游目标后采取行动,使自己的旅游需求得到满足,从
 Literature review文献综述
 
1 Concept of tourism motivation对旅游动机的认识
旅游动机是推动人们旅游的直接驱动力,受旅游动机的刺激,人们在确定旅游目标后采取行动,使自己的旅游需求得到满足,从而消除了紧张(林、李、王,2012)。Bao(2009)指出,影响旅游动机的因素包括个人心理和个人因素,以及一些外部因素。如果一个人想旅行,他必须同时具备主观和客观条件。在主观上,他必须有旅行的需要;客观上,他必须有一定的支付能力和休闲时间,以及健康状况等。研究消费者的旅游动机,是旅游企业全面了解消费者需要什么样的细分市场,及时向消费者先容所需要的。f满足目标市场需求以增加市场渗透的旅游项目(Caber和Albayrak,2016年;Devesa、Laguna和Palacios,2010年)。
Tourism motivation is the direct driving force promoting people to travel, stimulated by tourism motivation, people take action after determine a travel target, making their travel needs satisfied, thus eliminating tension (Lin, Lee and Wang, 2012). Bao (2009) notes that factor affecting tourism motivation includes individual psychological and personal factors, as well as some external factors. If a person wants to travel, he must have both subjective and objective conditions. Subjectively, he must have a need to travel; objectively, he must have a certain ability to pay and leisure time, as well a health condition, etc. Study on consumers’ tourism motivation is the key for tourism enterprises to a comprehensive understanding of what consumer needs to carry out accurate market segments to provide timely introduction of tourism project to meet the needs of a target market to increase market penetration (Caber and Albayrak, 2016; Devesa, Laguna and Palacios, 2010).
2 Push-pull theory推拉理论
旅游动机理论有驱动理论、唤醒理论、诱导理论、希望值理论、归因理论和成就目标理论等,推拉理论是最著名的理论之一(Mohamed和Othman,2012)。在这个模型中,推动因素是指由内部不平衡或紧张引起的需求,这是影响人们旅游的内在因素,其内在因素包括逃离日常环境、进行社会交往等(Chen和Chen,2015)。拉动因素与目的地的属性和特征相关,有影响人们选择特定目的地的因素,如独特的自然景观、历史古迹等(Bao,2009年)。拉动因素是影响旅行动机的外在因素(Bao,2009年;Seeballock、Munhurrun、Naidoo和Rughoonauth,2015年)。这一理论出现在20世纪70年代,之后得到了学者们的改进,到目前为止,推挽理论已广泛应用于旅游动机的研究(Caber和Albayrak,2016)。
There are several theories on tourism motivation, such as drive theory, arousal theory, inducement theory, expectancy value theory, attribution theory and achievement goal theory, etc., push-pull theory is one of the most famous theories (Mohamed and Othman, 2012). In this model, the factors pushing refer to needs caused by internal imbalance or tension, which are internal factors affecting people’s going for tourism, the internal factors include escaping from everyday environment, carrying out social communication and so on (Chen and Chen, 2015). Pulling factors link to attributes and characteristics of a destination, there are factors affecting people to choose which particular destination, such as a unique natural landscape, historic monuments and so on (Bao, 2009). Pulling factors are extrinsic factors affecting travel motivation (Bao, 2009; Seebaluck, Munhurrun, Naidoo, and Rughoonauth, 2015). The theory appeared in the 1970s, after that, it has been improved by scholars, up to now, push-pull theory has been widely applied to the study on tourism motivation (Caber and Albayrak, 2016).
3 Travel career ladder theory旅游职业阶梯理论
Williams和McNeil(2012)基于马斯洛的需求层次理论,将旅游动机分为五个等级。一是自我实现:就是要实现一个人的梦想,更好地了解自己,体验内心的和平与和谐。二是自尊和自我发展:强调发展自己的技能和常识,希翼有能力控制一切,受到他人的敬重和创造性。三是人际关系:旅游者要建立和拓展人际关系,积极与他人互动,与他人一起参与活动,分享快乐时光。第四个是刺激需求:游客想要安全,但不应该无聊,他想要刺激,但他不想要真正的危险,他想要乐趣和刺激。最后是放松需求:游客想要休息、恢复、个人护理。他注重基本服务和饮食、卫生、空间,享受暂时脱离日常工作和生活的机会。随着旅游体验的增加,人们往往有更高层次的旅游动机。通常,当满足较低层次的旅游动机时,他们会有较高的动机水平(Williams和McNeil,2012年)。
Williams and McNeil (2012) are based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory to divide tourism motivation into five grades. First is self-realization: it is to achieve the dream of a person to have a better understanding of himself and experience inner peace and harmony. Second is self-esteem and self-development: it is emphasis on the development of his skills and knowledge, hoping to have the ability to control everything, be respected by other people and to be creative. Third is interpersonal relationship: a tourist wants to build and expand his relationships, he actively interacts with others and participate in activities together with others to share happy times. Fourth is stimulation needs: a tourist wants safety but it should not be boring, he wants stimulation but he does not want real danger, he wants fun and excitement. The last is relaxation needs: a tourist wants to get rest, recovery, personal care. He pays attention to basic services and food, sanitary, space, and enjoying the temporary escape from daily work and life. As experience of tourism increases, people tend to have tourism motivation of a higher level. Usually, when their tourism motivation of lower levels is met, they will have a higher level of motivation (Williams and McNeil, 2012).
4 Research on tourism motivation of young people
18-30 year olds people are the mainstream of tourists, a latest survey from World Youth Student and Educational Travel Federal shows that among international visitors in the world, young people aged 16 to 25 years old account for more than 20%, the organization also points out that young tourists play a key role in promoting the development of international tourism (Huang and Cai, 2011). Since 1990, young tourist market size enhanced with an annual growth rate of 20% to 25%. World Tourism Organization also points out that young tourist market is the fastest growing tourism market segmentation (Huang and Cai, 2011). In the UK, there is even a tourism enterprise called 18-30-year-old club which dedicates to provide services for tourists of this age group. 18 to 30-year-old club is the first firm tourism enterprise specializing in provision of holiday activities for youth, it already has nearly 30 years of history, its management philosophy is fully in line with young people's behavior way, it helps young people to get to know more friends and provides enriched arrangements for their daily lives, rather than just organizes plain sightseeing tissue activities (Thrane, 2016). 
China's tourists who were born in or after the 1990s (post-1990 generation) have in common with the World Youth tourists, because of its special growing environment, China's post-1990 generation has a certain specificity  It has been found through study that, in the choice of destinations and tourism products, China's post-1990 generation is more susceptible to "fashion factor". Post-1990 generation travels primarily for the pursuit of freedom and happiness, growing up (Lu, Hung, Wang, Schuett and Hu, 2016). With the emergence of a large number of the tourism group of post-1990 generation and the rapid development of youth tourism market, some new way of travelling and tourism consumer behavior appear, which is related with the psychological characteristics, consumer behavior of post-1990 generation (Lu, Hung, Wang, Schuett and Hu, 2016). For example, post-1990 generation tend to choose independent travel or half independent travel, they like selecting and arranging travel activities by themselves; or through the network to find friends with common travel interest with them to travel together, and the senior partners will act as team leaders; some tourists of post-1990 generation are introduced via a network or friends to look for tourists with houses, cars in the destinations they want to go, through exchange of using houses, cars with each other in the destinations, they achieve the purpose of savings time and money (Lin, Lee and Wang, 2012). As the spending power of post-1990 generation enhances, consumer motivation of post-1990 generation is quite different from traditional tourists in travel mode, while there are also significant differences in terms of tourism consumption between them, such as the differences in modes of payment for consumption, ways of access to information (Lu, Hung, Wang, Schuett and Hu, 2016). Post-1990 generation have an universal access to information from the network, according to survey from the World Youth Student and Educational Travel Federal, the main way of more than 80% of young tourists’ access to information is the network, especially for the post-1990 generation in China, they are the generation who grow up along with the development of the Internet in China, their frequency of using the network is much higher than other groups (Munar and Jacobsen, 2014). In travelling, post-1990 generation generally buy less souvenirs and more favorite products during their travelling, with the prevalence of credit card spending, the proportion of credit card spending behavior of post-1990 generation in tourism consumption has been greatly improved (Heo and Lee, 2016). There is a certain link between these changes in consumer behavior and the relatively unique consumer psychology, consumer motivation and growth environment, family structure of post-1990 generation.


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