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MBA Essay范文:组织战略、学问和领导 Organisational Strategy, Culture and(2)

时间:2018-02-05 14:00来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:cinq 点击:
Doz and Thanheiser (2000) say that Inventing a creative recipe and cooking a perfect dish still require much talent from leaders. So, it is leaders responsibility to formulate strategy and create a st
Doz and Thanheiser (2000) say that "Inventing a creative recipe and cooking a perfect dish still require much talent from leaders". So, it is leaders' responsibility to formulate strategy and create a strategic intent to drive the organisation for results. In any organisation existing structure is very important for employees as they are comfortable with the existing power bases, rewards and recognitions as well as the job security. Appelbaum (1991) emphasises that success of any strategic change is highly depend on the key people. So, adjusting the roles, responsibilities and accountabilities would be the challenge and leaders have to apply different types of leadership styles depending on employees' educational, cultural, religious and social background as well as the organisational values and beliefs.
Leadership Styles
Leadership literature emphasises that there is no single effective style of leadership (Goffee and Jones, 2000; Gill, 2001; Higgs and Rowland, 2003). But Sherman et al (2007) points out that transformational leadership has been successful in getting the work done willingly while giving people a sense ownership. He further states that transformational leaders are change agents and cheer leaders in organisations. Sherman continues saying that transactional leaders enhance organisational performance by providing support and guidance to accomplish specific tasks or functions. Yukl (2006) calls transformational leadership as relationship oriented and transactional as task oriented where he points out that the appropriate mix of both depending on circumstances as situational leadership. Servant leadership takes place when leaders assume the position of servant in their relationship says Russell & Stone (2002). Autocratic route is rarely an acceptable option even in sole trader organisations, Nolan et al (2007). It is very clear that different authors argue in various ways and has come up with a range of suggestions for leading styles.
For example, Jack Welch approach to turn around GE is a prime example of varying leadership styles depending on the situation and the long existed organisational and the social climate. At the initial stage as a senior leader, he creates a vision and strategy to re-organise and drive GE towards success where he had to dismiss people, sell under performing units etc. During this time, he uses his positional power and authority and acted as an autocratic leader most of the time as a result he was nick named as "Neutron Jack". Once he made GE lean and a flexible organisation without boundaries his approach was more democratic. Fujio Mitarai at Canon is also renowned for taking a similar kind of approach where as Paul Kennedy - a fictional HBR leader is renowned as a soft negotiator who is not willing to push for best deal, critics called him as a Laissez -faire leader. But nobody justifies his approach was wrong and is totally Laissez-faire approach (Strategic Direction, 2006) as Laissez-faire style is associated with dissatisfaction, unproductiveness and ineffectiveness.
Though Jack Welch was earlier called as a neutron, later he was recognised as a transformational leader who turns around GE as the most recognised and valuable organisation in the world. He proved that the right mix with all styles drives organisation towards success. Goffee and Jones (2000) state that being your self, with skills is important as a leader, so it is clear that successful leaders represent this argument introducing their own way of doing things. Prime example is Finnish mobile manufacturer Nokia, Jorma Ollila, who is a silent CEO but with high-performance. It is believed that he take servant to transformational style as and when required.
Organisational Culture
Deshpande and Webster (1989), define culture as a set of tacitly understood rules and procedures which guide employees behaviours depending on the situation where as Williams at el. (1993) describes it as common and stable beliefs, values and attitudes . Schein (2004) and Johnson et al (2008) share their view stating culture as a shared basic assumptions that has worked well in the past, so they are forced to think and feel same when it comes to same kind of situations and Johnson put this into his words;
""Organisational culture is the basic assumptions and belief that are shared by members of an organisation that operate unconsciously and define in basic taken - for - grated fashion an organisation's view of it and its environment". - (Johnson et al, 2008: pg 189)
Therefore, in general culture can be defined as norms, values and belief or assumptions people in an organisation shares commonly and be guided by. For example, Fujio cho, the president Toyota says that their business practices are based on core principles created values, beliefs and business methods and he further states those have become competitive edge over the years. So, for Toyota, culture is more important and they drive organisation benefiting from their strong homogeneous culture (Liker, 2004)
Johnson, et al (2008) emphasis that individuals are surrounded by four different cultures, namely national/regional, organisational field, organisational and functional/divisional and he further states that the importance of understanding all four frames of culture in order to be successful in the business environment. McDonald's approach to enter and operate in India is a prime example for this. McDonald's menus in India do not contain pork or beef. Vegetarian and non - vegetarian food products are kept separate throughout the sourcing, supply chain, cooking and serving process, (cordthinking.wordpress.com). They have been successful in achieving their strategic objectives with the thorough understanding the all forms of cultures that Jonson explains.
Burt et al (1994) and Burt (2000), say that in some sectors corporate culture does not have say on performance but in others culture play a pivotal role in creating completive edge. Toyota, P&G are prime example for organisations which take edge from their strong cultures. He continues stating that understanding culture's contingent value is important as it says when and when not to consider about culture in strategy formulation and leadership.
Composition of culture
Literature describes culture is a composite of values, belief, behaviours and norms which has been existence and accepted for a certain period of time (Schein, 2004; Liker, 2004; Burt, 2000). Where as Johnson, et al (2008) points out that paradigm is the base for culture and he explain in his below model that behaviours, belief and values are guided by this paradigm.
Types of cultures
Sherman et al (2007) introduces three different types' cultures in organisations;
Homogenous - characterised by consistency, consider organisation as one and they react to changes as a unit. Toyota's culture is prime example for it as all employees' values, behaviours and belief are guided by the culture.
Differentiated - there are majority and minority subculture but the majority runs the organisation.
Fragmented - small units maintain their unique cultural identities; a subculture will dominate only due to organizational necessity. It is not clear that which culture runs the firm. Trade unions and other formal and informal groups also have a say and influence on organisational decisions. Royal Mail trade union dispute and current organisational issue have been created through these cultural norms as they do not have a strong organisational consensus.
Strategy, Culture and Leadership
Schein E.H (2004) sees culture and leadership as two sides of same coin and he further says that leaders first create cultures and then groups and organisations.
"The culture often determines the degree of co-operation and commitment among the staff as well as the organisation's strength of purpose and the CEO is usually responsible for setting this tone" - Appelbaum (1991:pg.50)
Therefore, strength of organisational purpose, employee commitment and co -operation are highly depending on organisational culture. As Appelbaum (1991) says, leader is the creator of it. To achieve sound business performance while exploring unprecedented business opportunities with highest risk ever, business managers plan strategically. P&G's "connect & develop", GE's "work out" are transformational strategies from which they turn around their organisations. According to Appelbaum (1991), Leaders can ignore the culture, fit culture to strategy or fit the strategy to culture compromising performance. In GE's and P&G's case, strategic leaders were not ready to compromise on results they really cared about value addition in terms of customers, shareholders and for the society as whole. For example P&G's A.G. Lafley has created a homogeneous culture which supports their strategy. Understanding the importance of culture for organisational well being he as the leader lives with it talks it all the time, in almost all reports such as sustainability, annual reports etc makes sure that they communicate their values, beliefs and the organisational purpose to all stakeholders and in that leadership creates the culture which supports to organisation's end state. Schein (2004) says understanding culture is desirable for all but is a must for leaders. So, it is evident that Welch and Lafley live with this argument when driven their organisations to greatest states ever.

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