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美国college essay:营利机构与非营利机构区别分析(3)

时间:2015-02-04 09:39来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:lynn406 点击:
2 非营利机构所面临的问题The Issues Faced by Nonprofit Organization It is always not an easy task to manage an organization especially a nonprofit organization. This is because there are man
 
2 非营利机构所面临的问题——The Issues Faced by Nonprofit Organization
 
It is always not an easy task to manage an organization especially a nonprofit organization. This is because there are many matters and issues need to be considered deeply before making decision for the operation of an organization. Once any significant terms are not taking into account, the decision made may lead the organization to poor condition, facing legal obligation and even liquidation. Therefore, it is important for a nonprofit organization to know about the issues that they need to deal with in order to come out with suitable solution that can lead the organization for continuous growth. The following are some issues that require further consideration.
 
2.1资金筹措—— Fundraising
 
Funding is an important element for both profit and nonprofit organizations for sustain and survival (Werosh, 2008). This is because the operation and administration activities of an organization require fund to process. Without sufficient fund, many organizations especially nonprofit cannot maintain their operations to provide necessary services to our society (Werosh, 2008). As nonprofit organizations are not aimed to generate profit to the organizations, they obtain fund through fundraising activities in order to finance their operations and activities. However, due to the rapid growth of the number of nonprofit organizations in seeking the limited financial resources, the competition is increase intensively and cause nonprofit to be harder in achieving long term financial stability (Frumkin and Kim, 2001). Fundraising by nonprofit organization is challenging during the good economic condition and especially more challenging during economic downturn (Kurre, 2010). At the same time, the success of a nonprofit organization in raising fund will enable the growth of the organization and effective fundraiser will increase the networking and relation with donors. Thus, most of the nonprofit organizations now seek fundraising as the critical activities in their organization.
 
However, this trend has become the concern of public on nonprofit organization as they worry that nonprofit organization may spend more resources on unproductive fundraising activities in order to attract more donations in which the used resources can otherwise be spent productively in delivering goods and services to public (Yurenka, 2007). People are concern with the focus of a nonprofit organization will be twisted when the organization is too emphasis on fundraising activities and neglect its main duties for the society. Undeniable the main purpose of a nonprofit organization is to provide goods and services that will fulfill the needs of society which will not be satisfied by other parties. At the same time, the important of fundraising activities cannot be denied as they actually act as the supplement or support for the organization to provide goods and services to meet society’s needs. Therefore, both of them are remain equally important. The nonprofit organization is responsible to balance itself among both of these efforts.
 
Furthermore, the worried of more resources will be allocated to fundraising activities rather than to meet organization’s objectives can be vanished. From several previous researches including research done by Yurenka (2007), they had shown that fundraising and donation tend to have a positive relationship. This means that the fundraising activities can generate more donations and eventually the expenditure of fundraising activities can be cover up by these additional donations. Therefore, there will be more fund can be utilized in order to achieve organization’s objective to fulfill the needs of society. Fundraising expenses are only a small portion of donations received. Besides that, Yurenka (2007) have discovered that the demands for donation are downward sloping. This is because the more amounts the organization has to pay for a single donation, the fewer donations will be demand. Hence, a nonprofit organization will only search for the donations within the limit that the organization can afford. Thus, a nonprofit will not continuing financing the fundraising activities till the main objectives of the organization be abandoned.
 
Moreover, some nonprofit organizations are also facing problem in identifying suitable sources of funds in the fundraising activities for their organizations. This is because they are uncertain on which sources are more appropriate and more reliable to depend on. Some sources are reliable but not easy to obtain and difficult to maintain continuous funding. Some cannot be relied on but are able be obtained easily as long as fulfilling the requirements. Therefore, nonprofit organizations need to investigate and analyze carefully for the most suitable sources of funds for their organization to ensure their organization’s sustainability. There are some common sources where the nonprofit organizations can obtain funding for their operation. Nonprofit organizations can collect fund from donors, grants, fee for service, special events and in kind donations.
 
2.1.1 鼓励捐赠——Donor Appeals
 
Donor appeals are the main sources of fund for most of the nonprofit organizations. Therefore, it was found that nonprofit organizations tend to focus on donors’ motivation in their fundraising activities (Frumkin and Kim, 2001). It is very important for a nonprofit organization to identify the interested donors who care about the same things as the organization does and persuade them to donate or contribute to the organization’s fund. Donor appeals can be taken in several alternatives like campaigns, direct mail solicitations, telemarketing, door to door distribution, direct response press advertisement and newsletter appeals. This path is easier compare to other alternatives in obtaining fund as donors can be found anywhere. However, it is also difficult to maintain the donation from one donor because this is influence by the donor management of the organization.
 
2.1.2 补助金——Grants
 
Grant is another important source of revenue for some nonprofit organizations. However, nonprofit organizations cannot rely too heavily on this source as it is not a stable financial resource. Besides, it is not easy for an organization to obtain a grant. The nonprofit organizations are required to compete with each other to win the willingness of foundations to fund their organizations. Sometimes, organizations even need to compete with each other intensively for only a limited fund. Therefore, there is no guarantee that the organizations will obtain fund successfully through this way. Hence, it is better for the nonprofit organizations to think out of other sources for fundraising rather than sole focus on this path.
 
2.1.3服务费用—— Fee for Services
 
Some nonprofit organizations carry out some suitable fee-for-service arrangement in order to collect fund for their operations and activities. The funds can be obtained through collection of participation fee or registration fee for some campaigns and programs organized by the organizations. This method is easy to be operated but cannot be relied on as members’ participation cannot be guaranteed.
 
2.1.4特殊活动—— Special Events
 
Special events are another useful mechanism for raising fund by nonprofit organizations. This is because through special events, nonprofit organizations have the opportunity to get free advertising to attract more potential new donors. Events like banquets, parties and balls are organized and some individuals are invited to the events. Individuals would normally require to pay to attend the events and the payments would consider as the supports contributed to the organizations. The nonprofit organizations would usually invite their supporters to the events with the hope that they would invited or bring along potential new donors to this events and enable them to learn about the organizations’ objectives.
 
2.1.5物资捐赠—— In-Kind Donation
 
Non-monetary donation can help the nonprofit organizations as well. The donation of goods and services by individuals or businesses can reduce the need of nonprofit organizations to purchase those products with cash reserves. Therefore, those saved money can be used for social welfare programs and activities and thus achieve the organizations’ objectives better.
 
4.2.2捐赠管理—— Donors Management
 
Even there are many ways in obtaining fund, nonprofit organizations are still facing great challenge in attracting the potential donors and maintain the existing donors. This is because the nonprofit organizations do not employed useful steps in acquiring and serving their donors. Some nonprofit organization lack of ability in creating attention and attract donors to finance them. Even they have successfully attract some donations, they loss the donations in later time due to their poor donors’ management. In the effort to attract donors, nonprofit organizations would need to know about the appropriate and effective ways to attract a donor. This is because donors are rarely come on their own instead of successfully being persuaded by the organizations. Therefore, in order to attract donors successfully, nonprofit organizations would first need to communicate with the donors about the organizations’ purposes and objectives.


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