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一出生就是一个失败者?

时间:2016-01-15 09:45来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:留学生作业 点击:
摘要:本文主要讲述了领导者所应具备的特质和品质。领导是一种技巧,能够在实践中改善,在大家的生活中前进。

一出生就是一个失败者?
Born a loser?


是否一个人出生就注定会成为一个领导者或发展技能并具备能力去成为一个好的领导者,对此展开了开放的辩论。人们可以没完没了地讨论这个话题,将会以没有结果而告终,因为它没有正确的答案。大家经常听到“他/她是一个天生的领袖?“在一个优秀领导者身上,很少会发现一些特点,但这些可以被开发或者自然而然地成为个性的一部分。有争论提出,如果领导人选择血统的基础上(英国皇室)领导人“出生”的同时,如果领导人在任何其他基础上选择他们比有血缘关系更好,美国总统领导人是历史上最好的例子。
这真的是一个有争议的理论,但对“出生”领导人有遗传品质,意志力将领导品性发自内心;他们伴有先天的DNA而成长,导致增加了他们成为一个领袖的机会,也说明了特征的理论(Shead 2007)。相反一些人说,“没有天生的领导者”大家都有与生俱来的独特品质和力量,在大家的领导生涯中得到一定程度的帮助,他们在大家大多数人中间。领导是一种技巧,能够在实践中改善,在大家的生活中前进。有许多受过良好教育的和受过激励的人,他们缺乏常识怎样去领导他人。在进一步让大家了解之前,领导是什么呢?
去定义领导力是具有挑战性的,因为它是根据态势和而频繁变化着的。一些人说领导是一种聆听和观察能力,其他人说,它是一个过程,在过程中一个人影响一群人来实现和完成一个共同的目标。

Whether a person is born a leader or develops skills and abilities to become a good leader is open for debate. One can debate on this topic endlessly and can end up in no result because there no correct answer to it. How often we hear "She/he is a born leader?" There are few characteristics that are found in good leaders but these can be developed or be naturally part of one's personality. There are arguments that if leaders are selected on the basis of blood line (British Royalty) then the leaders are 'born' whilst if leaders are selected on any other basis than blood relation then they are made, American presidential history is the best example of made leaders.

This is really a controversial theory but yes 'Born' leaders have genetic qualities, the will to lead comes from within; they are simply born with the DNA to lead which increase the chances of them becoming a leader, as also explained in the Trait's theory (Shead 2007). In contrary some says that there are 'No born leaders' as we all are born with unique qualities and strength which helps us in the journey of leadership, they are inside us and for most of us it remains inside. Leadership is a skill that improves with practice as we move forward in our lives. There are many well educated and motivated people who lack the knowledge of how to lead others. Before we move further let's understand, what Leadership is all about?

Defining Leadership is challenging as it is situational and changes frequently depending on the situation. Some says leadership is a capacity of leaders to listen and observe and others say that it is a process whereby one individual influences a group of individuals to achieve and accomplish a common goal. Leadership is an athletic ability (G. Bernier), no matter how well you can learn to play basketball but you can't become Michael Jordon until you improve your skills to that level. Leadership is a skill that can be learned and practice over time (G. Krstulovic). Leadership is about setting and not just responding or reacting to the list of things to be dealt with (agenda). It is a trust; if others do not trust you they will not follow you.

In favour, we have the traditional approach which attempted to identify physical characteristics in human "The Trait's theory" which clearly states that people are born with inbuilt traits or qualities which are specifically designed for leadership. According to it, if you can recognise people with the correct traits, you have identified an individual with leadership potential. This theory assumes that there are born leaders and not made. Trait's theory also focused on the characteristics of good leaders which are: Honesty, Inspiring and Competent. Few qualities of born leaders are that they can picture the future that we want to see (Peter Senge) that makes them visionary as they give us directions which helps us in making decision and moreover motivates us when required. Vision is derived from "Passion" as without it an individual will have least impact as a leader. Ability to understand makes him "Intelligent" and ability to control and take risk shows he has "courage".

In against this theory was challenged by universalism which says that leadership is universal and can be adopted, "The behavioural theory" stating that all the characteristics can be learnt and it is not necessary that they have to be within you since birth. It might be difficult to learn and adopt such traits but it is not impossible. The three C model can help any individual to learn the leadership qualities: Challenge the status quo, build Confidence in others and provide Coaching to the people on how to do the things correctly."The culture factor" which says that a type of leadership might be successful in U.S.A but that same technique might not be effective in India or any other country. In this modern era more and more companies are spending huge amount of money on hiring professional so that they can train their manager's on attaining good leadership qualities in order to get better results. His strong willingness to be a leader, curiosity, ability to learn from success and failure, a non-defensive approach to negative feedback, urge to experiment new things, making positive statements can help any individual in becoming an effective leader.

Leadership traits are the best when discovered during childhood but skills are adapted at the later stage. Better way to understand the difference is to compare them. The below mentioned table will make a more clear picture.

领导人的特质——Leadership Traits

Adaptable to situation Alert to social environment Ambitious and achievement oriented Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Dominant Energetic Persistent Self confident Tolerance of stress Willing to take responsibility Leadership skills Clever Conceptually skilled Creative Diplomatic and tactful Fluent Knowledge about group Organized Persuasive Socially skilled

Now let's understand discuss types of Leadership.

1. Autocratic: This style of leadership is very aggressive as leader makes decision without consulting anyone else. It has its own advantages and disadvantages. Where this type of leadership is adopted, a high level of dependency is created and also creates de-motivation among staff members. Autocratic style of leadership comes handy when there is a need to make decisions quickly.

2. Democratic: This type of leadership promotes decision making from different perspectives which can be either consultative or persuasive. It means that leader will consult before taking any decision and after taking any decision they seek to persuade others that the decision is correct. This style influences motivation and workers feel involvement of their ideas in the firm. The only drawback of democratic leadership is that it leads to delay in decision making because of its lengthier procedure.

3. Laissez-Faire: It's a French word which means 'Let it be'. This style of leadership is highly motivational as it is people centric. In this an individual gets to control his working life and this style is very helpful when you are running a business which involves creativity of ideas. It totally depends on interpersonal skills and good teamwork but is considered as time consuming.

4. Paternalistic: This approach is straight forward. As the name suggests, in this style of leadership the leader acts as a father which allows him to take decisions and it totally depends upon himself to consult the same with others or not. They believe in supporting the staff workers which makes them a motivational approach/style of leadership.

Leadership depends on various factors such as risk and the nature of business or the culture of the organisation. As a leader you have the power to influence motivation. There is a thin line between manger and a leader. Managing and leading are two different ways of organising people. The manager uses a formal, rational method whilst the leader uses passion and stirs emotions. Manger is the one who uses his management skills and the resources given to him, to manage people. Mangers generally follow orders from the leader. The difference between them can be explained by the below given picture. It clearly states that the leader is the one who shows the direction and managers make it possible so that rest can follow leader's path including managers.

领导者和经理——Leader's vs. Managers

Think radically Think incrementally Do the right thing Do the things right Follow their own intuition Do the things by the book and follow company policy Use passion and emotions to organise people Use formal rational method to organise people Decision are taken for long term perspectives Decisions are taken for short term perspectives Are the architects Are the builders Are inspiring and motivating Are problem solving Focuses on outcomes Focuses on mechanics Are more emotional Less emotional People naturally follow them Must be obeyed May have no organisational skills Have organisational skills May be born or made Are made Have followers Have employees Have a vision Have a mission Develops Maintains



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