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代写美国essay:工作场所的非语言沟通技巧(2)

时间:2018-06-28 08:37来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:cinq 点击:
-Yet another relationship between a verbal act and a nonverbal act is one of dependence. A verbal act may depend for its correct interpretation entirely on a nonverbal act. Likewise a nonverbal act ma
 
-Yet another relationship between a verbal act and a nonverbal act is one of dependence. A verbal act may depend for its correct interpretation entirely on a nonverbal act. Likewise a nonverbal act may depend for its correct interpretation entirely on a verbal act. In extreme circumstances, the former is caused because of deliberate distortion of the verbal act, or because of the difficulty in listening clearly to the verbal act, or because of the difficulty in reading with clarity what is intended to be read in the written verbal message. Deliberate distortion is not found only in contrived acts such as poetry or drama. It is done in day to day language itself. Distortion and opacity of the verbal message are also required in certain socio-cultural contexts wherein it is demanded that verbal acts be suppressed and made dependent on nonverbal acts. The dominant nonverbal acts also depends on verbal acts for clarity. This dependence also depends on verbal acts for clarity. It also occurs in daily life.
 
-Verbal and nonverbal acts can be independent of one another. Something is communicated through a verbal act. The continued manifestation of this communicative act may be in the form of nonverbal acts. That is, in a single communicative act, part of the message may be in verbal form and the rest in nonverbal, in an alternating way. Each part is independent of the other. This is contrived in poetry and drama. It is also found in every day life. An extreme form of this independence is the gulf that we notice between what one says and what one does. Also prevarication both in word and deed derives its strength, among others, from this feature.
 
-Another relationship between verbal and nonverbal acts in one of non-relevance. This is most commonly found in normal adult speech and its accompanying gestures which are produced simply without any communicative intent. We move our hands, snap our fingers, move our bodies while speaking, with these gestures having no relevance to the speech we make. When this non-relevance between verbal and nonverbal acts found in normal is shifted to non-relevance or irrelevance within the ingle domain, within speech itself or within nonverbal act itself (during which coherence in speech or act is lost), we start considering the individual abnormal in some way. That is, non-relevance across the verbal and nonverbal media is normal, but non-relevance within a single medium is abnormal. The non-relevance is idiosyncratic and could be imitational as well. In the normal the excessive non-relevance of nonverbal acts accompanying speech comes to hamper the understanding of the verbal acts.
 
3. Types of Nonverbal Communication and Their Effects on Business.
The types of nonverbal communication are almost limitless. However, there are the types that are most applicable to business communications: facial expressions and eye contact, other body movements and gestures, clothing and personal appearance, distance and personal space, physical environment, and time (Hamilton, 2011).
 
Reading faces is not just a matter of identifying static expressions but also of noticing how faces subtly begin to change. People in face-to-face exchanges watch each other's expressions to gauge reactions to what's being said and heard. Even when some words are missed, observing the expression on a speaker's face can help the listener follow a conversation (Goman, 2008).
 
The smile is a very potent form of facial expression. It opens the door to communication. A natural, pleasant smile carries great significance in establishing and sustaining human relationships, be they in a family, society, community or a business organization.
 
Significance of smiling is beautifully brought out in the saying, "You are never fully dressed unless you wear a smile." Smile speaks the language of love, compassion, sincerity, courtesy, confidence and dependability. A smile emits positive signals. A smile can create a favourable impact and earn goodwill. All the same, it is also true that all smiles are not genuine. In the service industry, the sales force is specifically taught to cultivate genuine smiles and smile liberally in their day-to-day transactions with colleagues and customers (Marwijk,2002).
 
The eyes have been described as the gateway to the soul. They "speak" in the most revealing and accurate language because of the vast amount of information they convey about internal processes (Gorman, 2008).
 
Probably everyone has had some experience with eyes as nonverbal communicators. Most of us have been stared at and have wondered why. Was it curiosity or ill manners? Or perhaps the starter had poor vision and was merely trying to get us in focus. But then there is the possibility the observer found us attractive and interesting and was issuing an invitation to get better acquainted. Most of us have decoded "eye language" even if we did not know about body language or nonverbal communication.
 
There are numerous messages that can be sent with the eyes, but the stare is the most important technique a person has. In our culture one does not stare at another person-one stares at things. Therefore, a stare can have a devastating effect because it reduces a person to nonhuman status.
 
There is an endless number of messages which can be sent when one thinks of eyes combined with different positions and movements of the eyelids and eyebrows. As with all forms of nonverbal communication, messages sent by the eyes should be decoded in terms of the words accompanying them (Marwijk, 2002).
 
Daniel was well qualified (overqualified, in fact) for the job he was seeking, so when he didn't get hired he was shocked. But when Daniel called the recruiter who sent him out, he was told, "You were fabulous in all the technical aspects, but you freaked out the interviewer because you couldn't look her in the eye" (Goman, 2008).
 
How can anyone hope to communicate without using hands and arms? And even legs are for something besides walking.
 
No doubt each of us knows someone who "talks with his or her hands. Some people punctuate communications with such extravagant gestures that it is extremely dangerous to get too close to their nonverbal exclamations. Do you know people who during a conversation or a card game drum or tap incessantly with their finger tips? Are there people you know who constantly click the on-off switch of their ballpoint pens? Do you know people who frequently "pop" their knuckles? Do you notice individuals who tap their feet, who cross and uncross their legs, or who cross their legs and then swing their crossed legs back and forth?
 
What do these nonverbal messages tell you? Is the person nervous? Insecure? Bored? Thinking? Happy? Craving attention? A nuisance? Perhaps the messages mean nothing. On the other hand, if nonverbal signs reveal the emotional side of a communication, it is often important for you to try to determine what message is being transmitted along with the verbal one. Sometimes they are the same; other times they are drastically different.
 
Many people are devoting their entire life to the study of body language. Body language is an interesting, fascinating area of nonverbal communication; much remains to be learned about it. By becoming a better observer, by sharpening your powers of perception, and by knowing as much as possible about your audience (decoders), you should be able to translate more accurately nonverbal and verbal messages (Marwijk, 2002).
 
Elements such as physique, height, weight, hair, skin colour, gender, odours, and clothing send nonverbal messages during interaction. For example, a study, carried out in Vienna, Austria, of the clothing worn by women attending discothèques showed that in certain groups of women (especially women who were in town without their partners) motivation for sex, and levels of sexual hormones, were correlated with aspects of the clothing, especially the amount of skin displayed, and the presence of sheer clothing, e.g. at the arms. Thus, to some degree, clothing sent signals about interest in courtship.
 
Research into height has generally found that taller people are perceived as being more impressive. Melamed & Bozionelos (1992) studied a sample of managers in the UK and found that height was a key factor affecting who was promoted. Often people try to make themselves taller, for example, standing on a platform, when they want to make more of an impact with their speaking.
 
Environmental factors such as furniture, architectural style, interior decorating, lighting conditions, colours, temperature, noise, and music affect the behaviour of communicators during interaction. The furniture itself can be seen as a nonverbal message.
 
Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical space around them. The space between the sender and the receiver of a message influences the way the message is interpreted The perception and use of space varies significantly across cultures and different settings within cultures. Space in nonverbal communication may be divided into four main categories: intimate, social, personal, and public space.
 
The term territoriality is still used in the study of proxemics to explain human behavior regarding personal space. Hargie & Dickson identify 4 such territories:
 
Primary territory: this refers to an area that is associated with someone who has exclusive use of it. For example, a house that others cannot enter without the owner's permission.


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