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美国essay写作-美国essay代写:US Small Business Administration-小企业:大小作

时间:2011-08-30 11:36来源:永利国际娱乐注册送56 编辑:永利国际娱乐注册送56 点击:
美国essay写作-美国essay代写:US Small Business Administration-小企业:企业的大小作为一个机会或者障碍?Small Business – Size as a Chance or Handicap

美国essay写作-美国essay代写,Small Business – Size as a Chance or Handicap
The sector of small and medium sized businesses (SMEs) is an important factor in most economies. In Germany, for instance, there are 3.2 million SMEs (1999). These are 99.3 %of all enterprises subject to VAT. These SMEs generate 44.8 % of the total turnover subjectto VAT. SMEs carry out 46.0 % of gross investments; hence contribute significantly to totaldemand.
SMEs have a good reputation for their ability to innovate and for their close customerrelationships. Smaller businesses, however, have some disadvantages that make it difficultfor them to compete with the large players in their industry. This article analyses theadvantages and disadvantages that result from the smaller size of an organisation.
What is small?
In order to describe the strengths and weaknesses of SMEs, it is necessary to determine,what actually a small or medium sized business is.Literature, political and non-governmental institutions provide a wide range of definitions ofthe term “Small and Medium sized Enterprises” . Just the word “Small and Medium” indicates
that most definitions use the companies’ size to distinguish between SMEs and largercorporations. Amongst these quantitative elements is the number of employees the mostcommon one.
The following examples indicate the range of descriptions for the term SME.Most quantitative definitions refer to the number of employees; some also include size limitsby turnover and balance sheet total.
Definition by Micro Enterprise Small Enterprise Medium Enterprise
No. of employees
US Small Business Administration1 - 19 20 - 99 100 – 499
UK Department of
Trade and Industry
1 – 9 10 – 49 50 – 249
Eurostat 1 – 9 10 – 99 100 - 499
Definition by CriteriaSmall Enterprise Medium EnterpriseNo. of employees 50 250
Turnover in Mio ECU 7.0 40.0
European
Commission
Balance Sheet Total in Mio ECU 5.0 27.0
No. of employees 50 250
Turnover in Mio € 5.4 21.7
HGB
Balance Sheet Total in Mio € 2.7 10.7
IfM Bonn No. of employees 1 - 9 10 - 499
Turnover in Mio € 0.5 51.1
Figure 1 Examples of quantitative definitions of SMEs
All quantitative criteria should be used with care. It is especially important to take into
consideration industry-specific differences. A car dealer with 250 employees is large,compared to the average car dealer. A car manufacturer with 250 employees, however,would be considered a small player. The criteria of balance sheet total and annual turnovermight be useful for statistical reasons. Nevertheless they provide little information about the



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