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时间:2014-10-22 16:24来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:yangcheng 点击:
塞拉利昂是盛产钻石的国家,在当前的经济环境下,钻石如何出口才能获取最大的利益?本文是对塞拉利昂的钻石出口进行分析的一个留学生作业。
塞拉利昂钻石出口调查
 
在大家的日常生活中,每个人都着有在这个不断变化的世界中脱颖而出的愿望。不管在一片星球上的居民是否有任何不一样的功能,但所有国家都团结在一起而渴望成功。在国际层面上,成功可以在发展的基础上进行衡量。考虑到这一点,即在全球范围内,一个强大的经济是发展的核心就很容易被大家所接受了。由于在不同的经济环境下,发展已被证明对全球无数的南方国家具有挑战性。从历史上看,全球经济经历了一系列的发展,躁狂和危机(经济不安和欺诈的阶段)期间连续发生金融周期(安隆2008:256)。在1893年循环展开,有人认为最终在1930年所有世界各地国家将引发债务危机(安隆2008:256)。在这个金融崩溃的时代,发展中国家成为无法偿还之前获得贷款,随后恢复到原材料的出口以便进行融资,这会使得经济更加恶化。(哈龙 2008: 256). 

Investigating Sierra Leone Diamond Exports
 
Within the ever changing World the desire to excel remains the one constant factor in daily life. Regardless of any differentiating feature that may be identified amidst the numerous inhabitants of the planet, all nations are united in the longing for success. On the international level, success can be measured on a basis of development. Bearing this in mind, it is a widely accepted notion that a strong economy is central to development on a global scale. Given the varying economic climate, development has proven to be overtly challenging for countless countries of the Global South. Historically the global economy has experienced a series of financial cycles defined by the sequential occurrence of periods of growth, mania (a phase of economic unease and fraud) and crisis (Hanlon 2008: 256). In 1893 a similar cycle commenced, only to end in the 1930s with a debt crisis that was felt by nations all around the World (Hanlon 2008: 256). Within this era of financial ruin, developing countries became incapable of repaying their previously obtained loans and, subsequently reverted to the export of raw materials to finance their deteriorating economies (Hanlon 2008: 264). During this stage of depression the nation of Sierra Leone deviated from its traditional economic structure to focus on the export of the diamonds; a potentially lucrative primary product (Hirsch 2001:28). By 1957, 72% of exports leaving the nation of Sierra Leone were comprised of diamonds (conciliation resources). Regardless of the intentions of the country, the export of diamonds proved to be both socially and financially fatal. As illustrated by the nation of Sierra Leone, resource driven economic relations are detrimental to the development of the exporting regions as they have financed civil war, facilitated dangerous work conditions, and created economic instability amongst the labourers. The financial matters of developing countries should be of concern to all citizens of the Global North due to the fact that what happens within the South has the potential to greatly affect the lives of those living within the developed world. In this way all citizens of planet Earth have a direct connection to economic maturation of developing nations.
 
Theoretical Backing
 
The notion that resource driven economic relations are detrimental to the development of exporting regions is supported by the theory of development known as the dependency theory. The dependency theory, also known as the underdevelopment theory, promotes the idea that nations remain within a state of underdevelopment due to the exploitative nature of their economic dealings (Kegley 2009: 142). Furthermore, proponents of the dependency theory assert that the World may be readily divided into distinct districts which pertain to their place within the economy chain (Kegley 2009: 142). This division of society is often termed dualism, and refers to Andre Gunder Frank’s concept of metropolis and satellite structure wherein the metropolis is the capitalist economy which subordinates the satellite communities, resulting in subsistent lifestyles (Gunder Frank 1969: 108). Metropolises serve to greatly deteriorate the economic stability of satellite nations by promoting and enabling the dependency upon the export of non-value added primary products (Gunder Frank 1969: 110).
 
The ideas portrayed by the underdevelopment theory are highly visibly throughout the World economies and, specifically in Sierra Leone; a country which exemplifies the characteristics of regions dominated by export oriented economies. Within every facet of the nation’s financial system the ideas of the dependency theory ring true. To a great extent the underdeveloped state of the nation can be attributed to the countries reliance upon the export of diamonds (Olsson 2007: 267) which the developed world eagerly consumes. Moreover, the general populous of Sierra Leone can be identified as a satellite of the rebel force metropolis which in turn is a satellite to the metropolis of the global North. Undoubtedly, the philosophies of the development theory effortlessly coincide with the view that resource driven export economies are harmful to national development, and thus the dependency theory is crucial to the exploration of the idea.
 
Research Analysis
 
It can be determined that fiscal dealings sustained by the export of primary resources are disadvantageous to national progress and development as they can readily be associated with civil war. There are those who perpetuate the notion that there is no significant association between resources and hostility but this theory is not entirely valid. The occurrence of a plausible correlation between violence and outgoing commodities is highly dependent upon the accessibility or, rather the lootability of the resource at hand (Snyder and Bhavnani 2005). Historically, the civil confrontations which have transpired have been associated with political discontent, but a significant percentage of hostile engagements have originated due to economic and resource related struggles (Knox, Marston and Nash 2010: 425). In fact, within the year 2000, one quarter of all civil conflicts were affiliated with resources, whether they instigated or funded the confrontation (Knox, Marston et al.2010: 425). Further, studies have found that in countries wherein the dominant source of income is the returns received from outgoing primary products, a significant increase in violence may be observed (Snyde and Bhavnani 2005) thus indicating the correlation between civil conflict and resource exporting regions. Additionally, it has been determined that the involvement of resources in instances of conflict serves to extend the duration of the violence (Gilmore, Gleditsch, Lajala and Ketil Rod 2005: 260). The dilemma is that within the resource exporting, violent areas of the globe primary product related conflicts have resulted in corruption (usaid.gov) and have lead to the deterioration of the exporting nation’s formal economy, therefore diminishing the potential for development (Ballentine and Nitzschke 2005: 2). One must bear in mind that the commodities leaving the regions of the Global South are ultimately destined for the developed World. This implies that as resource oriented violence continues exporting districts will fall progressively further behind, from a development stand point, while nations of the Global North, independent of the need to export unfinished goods, will continue to thrive as a result of imported resources. This parasitic economic relationship visibly points out the developmental harm involved with exporting primary resource commodities.
 
The situation that is created when exporting goods greatly reflects the concepts portrayed by the metropole - satellite idea of dependency theorist. When applying the dependency theory to conflict and North–South economic relations it can be said that the Global North is the metropole that benefits from the incoming resource while South is the satellite that suffers the effects of resource dependency; conflict. In fact, it is often the case that foreign companies benefit from the insecurity of the nations upon which they rely for the resources that sustain their lifestyles (Smillie, Gberic and Hazelton 2000:11) This metropole – satellite theory promoted by dependency theorists is evident all over the World within numerous export oriented economic relations. 
 
In the nation of Sierra Leone, conflict stemming from the export of diamonds has plagued the country for decades, thus identifying the region as a satellite to the metrople of the Global North, as the developed culture benefits at the expense of the underdeveloped society. Within this distinctive area of the World, the rich presence of resources has served to undermine the economy due to the fact that they have been utilized to finance war rather then national monetary development (Smillie, Gberic et al. 2000:8). Rebel forces such as the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) have been developed, some say to confront the Country’s government, but history has indicated that the primary objective is to extract the mineral wealth in order to attain the extensive economic capital present in the soils of the region (Knox, Martson et.al 2010: 427). These resource and economic oriented wars are atypical in the sense that the intention is rarely to win, but rather to perpetuate lucrative violence (Smillie, Gberic Et al. 2000:11). Through the informal export of Sierra Leone’s mineral assets estimates indicate that the RUF has been able to obtain and reinvest 25 to 125 million US dollars annually depending upon the year (Knox, Martson et al. 2010: 427). Comparatively, the nation’s annual legal exports draw a mere 1million dollars (usaid.gov). This gap between licit and illicit earnings clearly depicts the resource based flow of capital and how it is directed towards distraction rather than development. Though highly profitable, the pursuit of economic supremacy by means of civil war is detrimental to the host nation wherein the war is waged. Within Sierra Leone, conflict has resulted in the disintegration of various public institutions such as schools (Hirsch 2001:28) therefore limiting the potential for the production of an educated populace and in doing so, preventing development. Additionally, 75,000 civilians have lost their lives (Smillie, Gberic et al. 2000:8), and approximately half the population has been displaced purely due to resource oriented conflict (Knox, Martson et al. 2010:426-427) creating an unstable environment that is not conducive to development. In contrast, prior to the discovery of diamonds in Sierra Leone, the nation had remained relatively peaceful (Hirsch 2001:95). Also, within this undisturbed state, the region had the potential to create a profitable, sustainable and diversified economy (Cartwright 1978:34). Viewing Sierra Leone from a modern light the country has rapidly deteriorated, positioning it last on the UNDP human development index (Smillie and Gberic et al 2000:8). Undoubtedly, devastating civil war and resource based economies coincide, thus indicating that resource motivated economic interactions are harmful to the exporting nations and their chances for national development.


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