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法国留学生assignment代写 以香奈儿的时尚历程看职业生涯的发展

时间:2014-11-12 11:30来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:pesix1 点击:
本篇主要讲述了时尚大师可可香奈儿的一生,从她事业的开端到之后在时尚界大放异彩,讲述了她起起落落的生平以及简单先容了香奈儿的时尚理念。
概况
 
加布里埃·可可·香奈儿(1883年8月19日- 1971年1月10日),是一个具有创造性的法国时装设计师,以其非凡的影响力影响着当今女人对于时尚的定义。
 
她是唯一一个在时尚领域被《时代》杂志定义的设计师,被誉为20世纪最具有影响力的人物,这证明了她十足的影响力。
 
她所倡导的现代主义哲学,男装的设计风格,以及追求昂贵但朴素的理念获得了无数的声誉。她让广大女性朋友脱离了胸衣的束缚,取而代之的是舒适、休闲和优雅。
 
她的第一家店,于19103年开业,可可·香奈儿上升成为一个巴黎乃至整个世界都十分重要的时装设计师。她的时尚行业涉及到简单的西装、连衣裙、女人的裤子,人造珠宝,香水和纺织品。
 
可可·香奈儿的作品总是十分简单,舒适,并透露着自己的真感情。
 
香奈儿使用的面料如,毛线衫、花呢,这些曾经一度被认为是贫穷和落后的代表。
 
香奈儿一直强调女人服装的重要性,如何使那些处于中心的女人们明白她们穿的衣服对于她们自己的意义:”看看那些穿着裙子的女人。如果没有女人,就没有裙子”。
 
The beginnings of a career
 
Introduction
 
Coco Chanel, born Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel(19 August 1883 - 10 January 1971), was a pioneering French fashion designer who's extraordinary influence has contributed to shape the face world of woman's fashion today.
 
It's a testament to her impact that she was the only person in the field of fashion to be named on TIME Magazine's 100 most influential people of the 20th century.
 
She gained a reputation for her modernist philosophy, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity. She replaced the corset with comfort and casual elegance.
 
Starting with her first store, opened in 19103, Coco Chanel rose to become one of the significant fashion designers in Paris and the world at large. Her fashion lines included simple suits and dresses, woman's trousers, costume jewelry, perfume and textiles.
 
Coco Channel's creations were always simple, comfortable and revealing.
 
Chanel used fabrics like jersey, tweed, which were considered to be poor and upgraded them.
 
The woman inside the clothes was emphasized by Chanel. How central the woman who's wearing the clothes to her concept can be understood by her statement “Look for the woman in the dress. If there is no woman, there is no dress”.
 
Early life
 
Chanel was born on August 19, 1883 in Samurai, Loire Valley, France. She was the second child of Albert Chanel, a traveling salesman and Jeanne Devolle. They had 5 children altogether, three girls and two boys. She was born in a poorhouse.
 
Her mother died in 1895, when she was 12, from tuberculosis and her father left the family in order to find work-abandoned the family to relatives. For seven years Chanel grew up in the orphanage of the Roman Catholic monastery of Aubergine. It is here that she was first introduced to the craft of a seamstress. During the school vacation, which she spent with female relatives in the provincial capital, she was taught by them how to saw more extravagantly than the nuns could teach her. When she was 18 she left the orphanage and started working for a local tailor.
 
Later in life, in order to diminish the stigma of poverty, orphan-hood, and illegitimacy that was the attitude of 19th century France, Chanel fabricated a false story for her humble early life. She insisted that when her mother died her father sailed to America and she lived with two spinster aunts. And also claimed that she was born in 1893 and not in 1883.
 
She took up the name “Coco” during a brief career as a cafe and concert singer from 1905 to 1908. She claimed that she was called nothing but “Coco”, meaning “little pet” as a child but some sources state that the origin of the name is in a song she sang when she appeared on stage, in a musical called ‘Qui qu'a vu Coco'.
 
The beginnings of a career
 
While she was working at the tailor's-working at the tailors she met and she started a relationship with the French playboy and millionaire Etienne Balsan who was a military officer, whom she met at a concert she performed in. From him Coco acquired the habits and tastes of the wealthy. While living with him she began designing hats, which started as a hobby, inspired by the fact that she disliked the ostrich feather decorated hats of the day, and later turned into a more serious pursuit-trade. Later she left Balsan and took over his Paris apartment.
 
In 1909 she opened a shop on the ground floor of Balsam's apartment in Paris . Balsam's apartment was a place of gathering for the hunting elite and they brought their mistresses along. This gave Chanel the opportunity to sell her hats to the ladies.
 
During this time she started a relationship with Arthur “Boy” Capel who was a friend of Balsan's. With the m o ney he loaned her she acquired the location at 31 Rue Cambon in Paris by 1910. There was already a couture shop in the building so she wasn't allowed to sell couture clothing there . The two men, Balsan and Capal helped her find customers among the women of society. Her hats were worn by popular French actresses of the day, which helped to establish her business . In 1913, Chanel introduced women's sportswear at her new boutiques in Deauville and Biar r itz . Chanel's designs were simple opposed to the opulent look worn by the ladies who came to these resort towns. As her customers fled Paris at the beginning of the war to these seaside resorts her stores flouris hed.
 
The war affected fashion . Women were doing the jobs that men used to do and they needed comfortable, warm clothing. And the notion of dressing for themselves and not their men started spreading among women. Chanel's designs became popular. During the war she opened another shop in Paris , on Rue Cambon. Here she sold flannel blazers, straight linen skirts, sailor tops, long jersey sweaters and skirt-jackets . In 1915 her fashions became known throu gho ut France for it s simplicity. She relocated her couture house to 31, Rue Cambon and simple day dress-and-coat ensembles and black evening dresses in lace or jet-embroidered tulle were previewed there .
 
In 1913 she opened up her first milinary store. There she diversified into selling a range of fashionable raincoats and jackets too. The store, which was situated in the heart of Paris, went out of bussiness soon afterwards and she was asked to surrender to properties.
 
However this setback did not deter Chanel. If anything it made her more determined.
 
Just before the World War I she met a former friend of Balsan, Arthur "Boy" Capel, an English industrialist, and started a relationship with him. It was him who loaned her the money and assisted her to open up her second milinary shop in Britanny . . The two men, Balsan and Capal helped her find customers among the women of society. Her hats were worn by popular french actresses of the day, which helped to establish her business In 1913 she opened another store in Deauville from where she launched woman's sport wear. Countess de Gounaut-Biron was her first aristocratic client. By this time the war has started. During this time the notion of dressing for themselves and not their men started spreading among men.During the World War I she served as a nurse for a short period. Capel died in an automobile accident in late 1919, which is said to be the most devastating event of Chanel's life.
 
By 1919, at the age of thirty two C hanel was enjoying huge success with clients all over the world. After C apel's death she threw herself more fervently into her work.
 
She was directing a staff of nearly 500 and operated in four building s on Rue Cambon and the two seaside stores.
 
By 1920 her fashion house had expanded considerably. Her chemise set a trend with its “little boy” look. Her casual and relaxed fashions, short skirts were a deviation from the corset fashions which used to be popular in previous decades. Chanel used to dress in mannish clothes and adapted the same style in her designs which other women found were liberating.
 
Chanel's clothes were high priced as any Paris couturier 's but unlike others she was happy to see her designs copied.
 
In 1923 she made her often quoted remark "Simplicity is the keynote of all true elegance" to Harper's Bazaar magazine.
 
Chanel's dresses were in wide contrast to the fashion which was around at that time. They were remarkably simple and free of ruffles and frills. Chanel is considered to be the person who freed women from corsets. As she said “I gave women a sense of freedom; I gave them back their bodies; bodies that were drenched in sweat, due to fashion's finery, lace, corsets, underclothes, padding”.
 
Chanel's style reflects the style of a new breed of young women which came about in the 1920s called the flapper. They flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior. Their style sense was straight and loose, comfortable and revealing.
 
Most of her fashions had a staying power, and didn't change much from year to year—or even generation to generation.
 
Sometimes the motivating factor behind the design was practicality. She started wearing bell bottomed trousers in Venice , easier to climb in and out of gondolas , and started the pants revolution. Sometimes it was purely accidental . She cut off her hair because she singed it and when she appeared in society it started a trend of bobbed hair.
 
In 1921 Chanel No. 05 was introduced and i n 1924 Parfums Chanel was founded. Coco Chanel's partner in the perfume business was Pierre Wertheimer. He owned 70% of the business, Chanel 10% and her friend Bader 20%.
 
In 1924 she introduce d her first piece of costume jewelry . Her jewelry designs were inspired by her large jewelry collection which consisted of gifs she received from her admirers. The keynotes came from Capel to which the Duke of Westminster added more.
 
In 1925, Vera Bate Lombardi, who was of aristocratic descent, became her muse and public relations liaison. She introduced Chanel to a number of aristocratic families who were instrumental in “Chanel's creative, romantic, financial, social and political rise to power.” Lombardi's connections were very helpful in building the House of Chanel.
 
Capel's blazer, lent to her on a chilly day at the polo grounds, was the source of inspiration for her box jacket, known as the Chanel jacket, which was introduced in 1925.
 
In 1926, America Vogue likened Chanel's Little Black Dress to the Ford, referring to its universal popularity. It became a staple for her throughout the seasons.
 
She also used colorful printed chiffons in her day wear. Evening dresses followed the long slim line which is characteristic to her but also had tulle, lace and decorative elements added to soften the look of the garment.
 
At the beginning of the 1930's evening dresses had an elongated shape and summer dresses had touches of rhinestone straps and silver eyelets. Chanel designed a line for petite women in 1937. T hroughout the 30 's Elsa Schiaparelli was a rival but it didn't last long. Chanel had an exhibition of jewel ry in 1932 dedicated to the diamond.
 
At the beginning of the World War II, in 1939, Chanel closed her shops. She believed it was not a time for fashion. The fashion business in Paris was cut off for some time which might have been a contributory cause to her decision. . She lived in hotel Ritz Paris on and off. The Ritz was her home for more than 30 years, until her death, where she had a private suite. Even during the Nazi occupation she was staying at the Ritz. During that time she was thought to have had an affair with a Nazi officer and spy, which she was criticized for, who arranged for her stay there. She also maintained an apartment above her coutur house in Paris and built a Villa on the French Riviera.
 
After 4 years of professional separation Chanel invited Lombardi to come and work for the house of Chanel. There was a controversial set of events in which Lombardi was thrown into prison, Chanel was arrested for war crimes but was not taken to trail because the British Royal family intervened.
 
In 1945 she moved self-exiled to Switzerland to evade the disapproval caused by her affair with the Nazi spy. In her absence Pierre Wertheimer returned to Paris to control his holdings. Out of sprite with him Chanel started manufacturing her own perfumes but came to a settlement with Wertheimer not much later.
 
and later returned to Paris in 1954. That was also the time she returned to the fashion world again. Because of her connection with the Nazi spy her new collection wasn't successful among the Parisians. But it was acclaimed by the British and the Americans who became her faithful customers.
 
Later life
 
Chanel returned to Paris in 1954. That was also the time she returned to the fashion world again. Some say that Dior's “new look” of corsets, pinched waists, padded bust, b ou ff ant skirts disgusted her and motivated to relaunch her designs . She felt that those designs were neither modern nor suitable for the liberated women who went through another war and took active roles in society.
 
She approached Wertheimer for advice and financial backing. In return he gained all rights for all products under the Chanel brand but this collaboration paid off since Chanel became one of the top labels again.
 
She face d challenges, assembling new staff, choosing new fabrics, competing at the age of seventy with much younger designers. Her comeback collection of couture came out in 1953. Because of her connection with the Nazi spy her new collection wasn't successful among the Parisians. But it was acclaimed by the British and the Americans who became her faithful customers. Within 3 seasons she found new found respect. She updated her classic looks till wealthy customers and celebrities came to her again.
 
Chanel and her spring collection received the Fashion Oscar at the 1957 Fashion Awards in Dallas . In 1957 she was also awarded the Neiman-Marcus Award.
 
In the 60's she sprang no surprises. Only updates on her classics , t he short, straight, collarless jacket, and the slightly flaring skirt that never budged from the knee.
 
She spent much of 50's and 60's working for various Hollywood studios.
 
Her fashion empire at her death brought in over $160 million a year. Prior to her death, a custom Chanel suit or gown fetched as much as $12,000. Her clients constituted of the best-dressed women of the whole century .
 
At the time of her death had a Paris wardrobe consisting of only three outfits.
 
A t the height of her career she was run ning four business enterprises , a fashion house, a textile business, perfume laboratories and a workshop for costume jewelry that altogether employed 3,500 workers. She worked up until her death. Her death occurred while she was working for the spring collection of that year.
 
Hotel Ritz, Paris was her home for more than 30 years, until her death, where she had a private suite. She also maintained an apartment above her couturcouture house in Paris and built a Villa on the French Riviera. Chanel's birth sign was Leo and she had a certain fascination for figures of lions. She surrounded herself with statues of lions in bronze, silver, wood, alabaster in her apartment. The lion became a timeless biographical seal in her creations.
 
Coco Chanel died at the age of 87 from a heart attack, on 10 January 1971 in her private suite at the Ritz, Paris. She was buried in Lausanne, Switzerland. Her tombstone is carved with lion heads.
 
Collections
 
The first set of garments designed by Chanel was for her early stores, of which not many references remain. It was a small collection and not shown on the catwalk.
 
The last collection was the 1971 Spring collection she was working at , at the time of her death.
 
It's difficult to pinpoint a best collection because her designs didn 't vary much over the years, even over decades. Her spring collection which received the Fashion Oscar at the 1957 Fashion Awards in Dallas can be con sidered as a remarkable collecti on .
 
The Chanel Empire today
 
The Chanel empire is controlled by the Wertheimer family today. Following Chanel's death several of her assistants designed the couture and ready to wear lines. Karl Lagerfeld took over the haute couture design in 1983 and ready-to-wear in 1984. He created designs inspired by the past Chanel designs. They included the classic Chanel details, tweed fabrics, colors, gold chains, quilt-stitched leather, and the linked "CC" logo. In later collections he diverged from the classis looks a little. And even started designing T-shirts and briefs for men. His ability to delve in to the archives of Chanel designs to find inspiration shows the importance of Coco Chanel's contribution to the world of fashion.
 
Other lines
 
Simple suits and dresses, women's trousers, costume jewelry, perfume and textiles.
 
Chanel introduced her first fragrance, Chanel No. 5, in 1921. This was the first perfume attached to a design brand. Chanel set the stage for other designers to do the same. It was a tremendous success and stays a classic today. Some sources suggest that the perfume got its name because it was simply the 5 th sample she created . Some others state that she had a superstitious belief in the number 5 after a fortune teller said that it's her lucky number. It was launched on the 5 th of the 5 th month (May). S till today a bottle of Chanel No. 5 is sold every 30 seconds. Since then there have been other Chanel perfumes .
 
In 1924 Chanel introduced her first piece of costume jewelry . It was a pair of pearl earrings, one white, one black. Her jewelry designs were inspired by the art deco movement of the 30's. In 1932 she premiered an exhibition of jewelry dedicated to diamonds.
 
C hanel 2.55 handbag came out in February 1955. That's how it got its name. This is the first such bag to have a strap. Chanel added a pair of chains as a strap so that the user can keep her hands free. It is said that the red color inside the bag was the color of her uniform at the orphanage. She liked horseback riding and the jockeys back then wore quilted outfits. This is said to be why the leather of the bag was quilted. She was fascinated with pockets so the bags she designed had a lot of pockets. The 2.55 bag had a secret compartment on the inside flap and there was a rumor saying that she kept her love letters there. After more than 50 years it's still one of the most sold fashion bags. Nowadays there're other handbags from Chanel label which are slight variations of the 2.55 too .
 
Chanel introduced her first fragrance, Chanel No. 5, in 1921. This was the first perfume attached to a design brand. Chanel set the stage for other designers to do the same. It was a tremendous success and stays a classic today.
 
Apart from her work in high fashion she also designed costumes for plays as Cocteau's Antigone (1923) and Oedipus Rex (1937) and film costumes for several movies, including Renoir's La Regle de Jeu.In 1931, Chanel was hired by Samuel Goldwin for one million dollars to dress his stars, including Kathrine Hepburn, Grace Kelly, Elizabeth Taylor and Gloria Swanson.
 
Chanel was also into designing textiles.
 
Inventions
 
Inventions by Coco Chanel include the little black dress, the Chanel suit, the Chanel jacket,
 
Chanel suit, Chanel jacket, bell bottoms, pea jackets, jersey suits and dresses, the draped turban, the chemise, pleated skirts, the jumper, turtleneck sweaters, the sling pump, two toned pumps, strapless dresses, the trench coat, the tricot sailor frock, the pullover sweater, gypsy skirts, embroidered silk blouses and accompanying shawls, straps for handbags, the tweed suit, ballet pumps, costume jewelry, the cashmere cardigan.
 
She made tanning fashionable when she became burnt by the sun during a cruise towards the Cannes in 1923 . And brought bobbed hair into vogue when she cropped her hair when she accidently singed it.
 
The Chanel jacket, which was introduced in 1925, symbolizes her design philosophy. A Chanel couture jacket has design and constructions details that differ from traditional jackets. These jackets are free of the complex inner structure of interfacings, pad stitching, and facings that can be seen in traditional custom-made jackets. As said in the Wikipedia (see reference 1) “Rather, the silk lining is machine quilted directly to the fashion fabric, the long exterior seams of the fashion fabric are machine sewn, then the shoulder fashion fabric seams are hand sewn. The interior lining seams and the outside edges of the lining are turned under and hand stitched to the edge of the jacket. The three piece sleeve (another distinctive Chanel feature) is constructed in a similar manner, then hand sewn to the body of the jacket. The heavy trims, cast metal buttons and the curbed chain sewn to the hem have a functional purpose by adding weight to a garment that is really nothing more than fashion fabric and lining.” This results in a highly comfortable garment, which is more similar to a sweater than a traditional jacket.
 
In 1926 Vogue published a black dress , short and simple, by Chanel. It was straight, calf length and decorated with a few diagonal lines. Came to be known as the little black dress or the LBD it was called by Vogue “Chanel's Ford”. A LBD is simple, often short, mostly a cocktail or evening dress (but can be a day dress). It is considered to be a wardrobe staple for any woman. It has to be as simple as possible not to become outdated and can be dressed up or down depending on the situation. Before Chanel published her dress black was a color associated with mourning and was not considered to be suitable for other occasions. The LBD became popular during the Great Depression because of its economy and during the 2 nd world war because it was comfortable to wear while working. Over time little black dresses became shorter at the hem or got made with different fabric s too .
 
The Chanel suit, which is considered a status symbol, is made of solid or tweed fabric has boxy lines, has a slim skirt and a collarless jacket trimmed in braid, gold buttons, patch pockets, and a gold colored chain sewn into the hem to make sure it hung properly from the shoulders. The buttons are either like coins or are gold buttons with the CC logo on them. There is always a ribbon sewed in the waist of the skirt to prevent the blouse from slipping and the zipper is placed on the side of the skirt to enable comfort. The suit is made to fit and even when the wearer moves is maintains its grace and elegance. Today the average cost of a Chanel suit is $5,000 and can only to be purchased at Chanel boutiques or at high-end department stores .
 
Coco Chanel introduced her signature cardigan jacket in 1925 and signature "little black dress" in 1926.
 
The Chanel jacket symbolizes her design philosophy. A Chanel coutur jacket has design and constructions details that differs from traditional jackets. These jackets are free of the complex inner structure of interfacings, pad stitching, and facings that can be seen in traditional custom-made jackets. As said in the Wikipedia “Rather, the silk lining is machine quilted directly to the fashion fabric, the long exterior seams of the fashion fabric are machine sewn, then the shoulder fashion fabric seams are hand sewn. The interior lining seams and the outside edges of the lining are turned under and hand stitched to the edge of the jacket. The three piece sleeve (another distinctive Chanel feature) is constructed in a similar manner, then hand sewn to the body of the jacket. The heavy trims, cast metal buttons and the curbed chain sewn to the hem have a functional purpose by adding weight to a garment that is really nothing more than fashion fabric and lining.” This results in a highly comfortable garment, which is more similar to a sweater than a traditional jacket.
 
Criticisms
 
The critics of Coco Chanel accuse her of using men for her advancement. Her many affairs are viewed with contempt with some.
 
S he's accused of spending a comfortable war in the arms of a Nazi spy. The French never forgave her for that. Many women were publicly humiliated after the war for associating with the Nazis. But the influential managed to avoid the punishment. Chanel was said to have used her many connections to avoid both official and unofficial punishment.
 
When she died, the apartment she kept over the store on Rue Cambon was discovered to be a riot of violent color and Rococo sophistication, things Chanel claimed to despise. Her critics were surprised to see that apartment of the woman who preached simplicity to the world.
 
Traditionalists accused her designs of "luxurious miserabilism".
 
Conclusion
 
Chanel's childhood experiences no doubt affected her designs. Some sources suggest that she was beaten by the nuns at the orphanage and as a result of that she grew a rebelliousness towards authority. People who challenge authority challenge social convention because society is an authority figure. It's this attitude of her which possibly made her defy convention and challenge the status quo, in her personal life, the way she dressed and behaved and through her designs.
 
The difficulties of her early life must have also motivated her to peruse a radically different lifestyle. First on the stage, then as a milliner and all the other areas of her life.
 
Having been raised in poverty and neglect must have motivated to make something of her . Not having close family and h aving to be independent and self-reliant at such a young age must h ave developed those qualities in her which served well later in life.
 
Her own preferences in clothes influenced her designs. She liked to wear simple hats, trousers, bell bottoms, comfortable and simple dresses, and these are incorporated in to her designs.
 
The simplistic and stark nun's habit and their environment is said to have influenced her designs.
 
The men in her life contributed to her success in many ways. They provid ed financial backing and connections . The jewelry they gifted her and the clothing she burrowed from her inspired her designs.
 
Her own active lifestyle and financial independence fueled her ideas on how modern women should look. It was as if through out her career she was packaging and marketing her own personal attitude and style.
 
Her interests inspired her fashions . She used her favorite color palette , shades of beige, black and white often. Elements of her art collection and theatrical interests went into her designs.
 
She had strong opinions in all matters and backed her fashions with the authority of her personal conviction. She was exacting and drove for perfection which made her products high in quality. Letting other people copy her designs freely made her designs more popular.
 
Her intuition for understanding the needs of the women of the day helped her create designs which would be welcomed by those women.
 
Chanel's creations are timeless because the woman who was wearing them was considered. Although tastes change human nature remains the same and what was important to women of decades ago is still important to the woman today.
 
She was not only a creative, artistic person, she also had strong entrepreneurial skills.
 
It wasn't only her talent as a designer that made her so successful. Her personality traits have contributed to her success massively. Her determination, perseverance, strength of character, drive for perfection, fearlessness and feistiness and the strength of her convictions made her the great designer she was.
 
Chanel's success was helped by timing. Ex: The flapper generation.
 
Influenced by nun's garment.
 
Rebels: was beaten by nuns
 
Men's energy into clothes
 
Timelss because the woman wearing was considered. Human nature doesn't chnge.


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