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英国代写coursework:关于论以色列问题研究

时间:2014-12-02 09:57来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:pesix0 点击:
巴以冲突已经证明这是一个相当复杂的任务.本文将说明这是为什么,进一步将分析以色列过去和现在许多方面的行为。
英国代写coursework:关于论以色列问题研究

概况:以色列种族隔离对抗安全
 
迄今为止分析了巴以冲突已经证明这是一个相当复杂的任务。在波涛汹涌的模糊海面当中,似乎有大量令人不安的不同观点撞在了矛盾的历史上,完全相反的合理化与困境的根源相关联。本文将说明这是为什么。学术界一般认为造成这种困难的原因是以色列的起源有分歧。
 
进一步将分析以色列过去和现在许多方面的行为包括土地所有权,歧视性法律,种族净化和军事占领。不用说,这可能会描述一个有别于经典的非常不同的故事,英雄的国家被迫从一开始为其继续存在的斗争对抗无情,凶残的和嗜血的敌人;一个国家有错但在权力范围内通过纯粹的方式尽其所能去实现和维护贵族。
 
毫无疑问,一个广泛的研究为了吸引注意到这反映的差距是必要的。西方偏袒以色列宣传具有巨大的影响这不是怀疑而是似乎有更多的元素和深层的原因。
 
安全在历史上一直是以色列政策范围的主要理由。这是明显的从1948年的人口驱逐种族到隔离的建筑...60年后的隔离墙。安全和防卫就是以色列被迫采取这种措施的原因,然而他们可能会引起反对的。
 
关系与友谊-Relationship and friendship  
 
概况:以色列种族隔离对抗安全-Introduction : Israeli Apartheid vs Security
 
Analysing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has demonstrated thus far to be a rather perplexing task. In the midst of the stormy sea of ambiguity, there seems to be an unsettling abundance of waves of extensively varied view points crashing down onto the paradoxical accounts of history, and utterly contrasting rationalization in relation to the root of the quandary. This paper intends to clarify why this is. General academia suggests that the reason for this difficulty is the fact that there are disagreements over the origins of Israel.
 
A further analysis will be into the many aspects of Israel's past and present actions including the ownership of land, discriminatory legislation, the ethnic cleansing and military occupation. Needless to say, this may paint a very different picture from the classic tale of the tiny, heroic nation forced into a struggle for its continued existence from the very start against relentless, murderous and bloodthirsty enemies; a nation that has erred but done everything in its power to achieve and uphold nobility by the purest of means.
 
Undoubtedly, an extensive study is needed in order to draw attention to this reflective disparity. That Western pro-Israeli propaganda has an immense impact on this is not at all in doubt but there is seemingly a more elemental and deep seeded reason. That is security.
 
Security has been the primary justification for the scope of Israeli policies throughout history. This was evident from the population expulsions in 1948 to the building of the aparthei.... separation wall 60 years later. Security and defence is the reason why Israel is forced to take such measures, however objectionable they may be.
 
The pro Israeli argument is that Israel is a country that struggles for survival. Even if one was to set aside Israel's immense military fortitude a question arises as to why the existence of a Jewish state would be so objectionable to Palestinians. Unlike today's rosy holy auto-proto messianic apologists, early Zionists were refreshingly candid about the reality of their aims. This will be later discussed in depth.
 
One foremost Zionist leader and theoretician was Ze'ev Jabotinsky. This man has more streets in Israel named in his honour than any other historical figure[1]. Written within what was perhaps his most famous essay from 1923, Jabotinsky did clarified one thing. That is that; "Zionists colonisation, even the most restricted, must either be terminated or carried out in defiance of the will of the native population."[2] Why is this? Purely because, history shows that "every indigenous people will resist alien settlers."[3]
 
This paper is intended to offer an insight as to what Zionism has meant for the Palestinians, how Israeli apartheid has been continually implemented, and suggestions for how it can be resisted and rectified. Throughout, references will also be made in relation to the work of the multitude of academics, writers and the blessed journalists[4] who have researched, documented and witnessed the unfolding of a form of apartheid in Palestine.
 
In order to do this, a clear and concise definition of apartheid is needed in accordance with international law. Further to this an analogy must be made between South African apartheid and Israel in order to fully comprehend the similarities and of course the differences between the two.
 
定义隔离-Defining apartheid
 
For the purpose of the present Convention, the term "the crime of apartheid", which shall include similar policies and practices of racial segregation and discrimination as practiced in southern Africa, shall apply to the following inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over another racial group of persons and systematically oppressing them...[5][Emphasis added]
 
Article II, International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, UN General Assembly
 
Resolution 3086, 30 November 1973
 
Though the state of South Africa is most connected to Apartheid as it is the context from which the term is derived,[6] the crime of apartheid itself is far more widely defined. This is a key point in relation to the study of apartheid in Israel since, even if one was to set aside the comparison to South Africa specifically, there exists some kind of measure by which the world may assess Israeli policy towards Palestinians.
 
The UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid in 1973. This meant that a comprehensive description of what unerringly the "crime of apartheid" looked like should be established. From this list of "inhuman acts" derived from the convention, below listed are a number of acts particularly worth noting;
 
Denial to a member or members of a racial group or groups of the right to life and liberty of person... by the infliction upon the members of a racial group or groups of serious bodily or mental harm, by the infringement of their freedom or dignity, or by subjecting them to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. [7]
 
Any legislative measures and other group measures calculated to prevent a racial group or groups from participation in political, social, economics and cultural life of the country... [including] the right to leave and return to their country, the right to a nationality, the right to freedom of movement and residence... [8]
 
Any measures including legislative measures design to divide the population along racial lines by the creation of separate reserves and ghettos for the members of a racial group or groups... the expropriation of the landed property belonging to a racial group... as will be further analysed, Israel has been and continues to be guilty of these crimes, which are all the more serious for having been "committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group of persons".[9]
 
In recent times, at an international conference, the Rome statue of the International Criminal Court (ICC) was adopted in 1998.[10] It comes as no surprise that Israel was in fact one of seven countries to vote against the statute. 148 countries voted in total. The ICC Statute incorporates the "crime of apartheid" in a list of "crime against humanity". It further goes on to describe apartheid as:
 
Inhumane acts... committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime...
 
Thus, suffice to say, even before the South Africa and Israeli Apartheid analogy is made, the criteria for what constitutes Apartheid is set out with a high degree of clarity under international law. With this it is possible to analyse Israeli policies since 1948 and in as far as possible, understand what this has meant and continues to mean to the Palestinian people.
 
"supporters of Israel present Zionism as an ideology of liberation of the Jewish people, but for Palestinians, Zionism, as it has been practiced and as they have experienced it, has been precisely apartheid."[11]

南非比较-The South Africa comparison
 
If Palestinians were black, Israel would now be a pariah state subject to economic sanctions led by the united state. [12]
 
Observer, October 2000
 
White settlers in South Africa, like Zionist pioneers, colonised a land already inhabited. As on South Africa, the settlers in Palestine expelled the indigenous population, some two-thirds of the Palestinians in the land that became Israel in 1948, took possessions of their properties and legally segregated those who remained.[13]


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