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代写英国硕士论文-HAROLD EDGERTON IN WORLD WAR II( The Structure of E(10)

时间:2012-05-23 14:02来源:未知 编辑:留学生作业 点击:
allocate resources for nighttime flash photography. He also had to gain the favor of the pilots and technicians who would be using the equipment. Working with the pilots, Edgerton had to overcome some

allocate resources for nighttime flash photography. He also had to gain the favor of the pilots
and technicians who would be using the equipment.
Working with the pilots, Edgerton had to overcome some psychological obstacles, 揗y biggest
problem was the fighter pilots. They came there to fly and fight. They did not want to have
anything to do with flying a camera around.?7 Edgerton soon figured out how to motivate them.
When he discovered a nudist camp in England, he kept the coordinates secret, and only the few
pilots that flew for him
learned the location.
Edgerton also used his
documentation of the
equipment, and the actual
artifacts to gain the interest
of the men in the field.
Edgerton was allowed to
train the soldiers only once.
Therefore, at all times, his
units were accompanied by
documentation to train the
people. The first page of an
operating manual about D-2
usage in A-20抯 he sent to the
army contains a picture of an
officer holding the control
85 Roger Bruce (ed), Seeing the Unseen: Dr. Harold E. Edgerton and the Wonders of Strobe Alley (MIT Press:
Cambridge, 1994). Image from accompanying CD.
86 Description and Operating Manual Lamp-Electric Flash Type D-2 For Use in an A-20 Airplane December, 1943.
Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 77, Folder 4.
87 "Edgerton, Killian, Duncan 3 April 1978"
Figure 38: Stonehenge Night Photographs. From the Ground, Illuminated from Above (left) and
an Aerial View (right)85
Figure 39: Flash Type D-2 86
34
unit, showing that his device is manageable (see Figure 39). The flash is not installed and
depicts the device abstracted from the complications of the plane and connections.
The manual continues by introducing the objectives of the technology. Whenever the army
asked him to build a flash unit, he would be told the desired height of operation. Moreover,
when tests were conducted with these units, and recordings were made, the most consistent
information recorded by the pilots is the altitude of flight.88 Edgerton, aware of this concern
about height, mentions that exact information in the first sentence of his product manual:
搮highly effective for military purposes at altitudes up to 10,000 ft厰
He continues his introduction with a very social approach to the usability of the device.
Edgerton uses this kind of 搒oft?approach in many situations, and he is also aiming to kindle
some ease in the operator that the device is simple to use:
This device produces, at the touch of a button under the control of the pilot, lighteninglike
flashes of intense actinic value for night, dusk, or dawn aerial reconnaissance.
Next he touches on issues that the pilots are most concerned with, their security while flying and
flashing the system and questions around being an open target to the enemy:
The new technique promises greater chance of avoiding antiaircraft defenses?The flash
is virtually silent?The brevity of the flash gives the enemy little advance notice?There
is no explosive hazard.
Edgerton then adds the points around the ease of use of the system:
Once the apparatus is synchronized, it requires no further adjustment. The equipment has
been designed to be installed or removed easily.
The control unit, shown in Figure 40, is operated
with one button only and the control settings are
extremely simple and self-explanatory. This is
ideal for a pilot to use especially when the rest
of the plane equipment he needs to operate is
extremely complex. He uses the black box idea
to abstract the pilot from all the connections and
complications of the actual setup.
The rest of the operating manual is geared
towards technicians who will be maintaining
and fixing the equipment when Edgerton is not
with them. At this level, Edgerton provides a
semi-detailed blue print, shown in Figure 20.
He proceeds to present a cookbook of the
88 Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 78 Folder 8.
89 Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 78 Folder 6.
Figure 40: Aerial Electronic Flash Control Unit89
35
installation process with step-by-step instructions, 搮emergency bomb release should be
checked. Two other cables must be installed?install a No. 17 flashtube before lifting the unit
into the airplane. Hold the tube vertically厰 90
Following the instructions,
Edgerton includes detailed
descriptions of the power supply,
the flash bulb with details that are
needed to fix or disassemble the
unit. These three main sections
of the manual form a document
where the level of details are very
well balanced and organized.
This shows how much Edgerton
thought about making his unit
attractive in terms of usability
and operation friendly.
In addition to the operating
manual, Edgerton also uses
graphic aids and photographs to
ease the explanation of the
technology in his correspondences and documents. Figure 41 shows a very high-level
installation of the equipment and basic specifications. This document is geared towards the
pilots who would like to understand the modifications made to the plane or senior officers who
would like to get a general idea and associate the terminology with the actual equipment.
INTERACTION WITH PEOPLE
Even though Edgerton was very successful in educating
through his documents, his desire for hands-on teaching
lead him to arrange for a group of enlisted men to come
to MIT for training in flash technology during August
of 1943. Not only did Edgerton teach them in a betterequipped
environment but also he was also able to get
to know them better during the training. In his talk with
John Duncan, Edgerton recalls the extraordinary
experience during the war, 揑 still get letters from these
fellows. We took one guy from South Carolina skating,
he has never seen ice before.?2
In addition to the stories Edgerton narrates, excerpts and
pictures in his lab notebooks display his enthusiasm
90 Description and Operating Manual Lamp-Electric Flash Type D-2 For Use in an A-20 Airplane December, 1943.
Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 77 Folder 4.
91 Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 137.
92 "Edgerton, Killian, Duncan 3 April 1978"
Figure 41: D2 Flash Unit in an A-20 Plane Described
Figure 42: Edgerton on the field -
Britain91
36
about being a part of the Army and the war effort. In one of his lab notebooks, he describes the
prelude to a reconnaissance mission. 93 He lists all the military personnel involved and their roles
in the mission and the entry contains little technical writing. Many of the accounts in his lab
notebook during this period contain narration of the day抯 events. This highlights his interest in
people and the nature of his relationships. This interest is also evident in the numerous pictures
of co-workers, military officers, and students pasted in his notebooks (see Figure 42, HEE
standing in the middle holding a large reflector). His positive attitude and passion for his work
are main thrusts to his success during the war.
As the war ended, he resumed his role as a
professor at MIT, asking the army for aerial
units to be used for education losing no time to
get back to his passion for teaching:
I should like to recommend that a complete
D-5 unit be permanently assigned to MIT for
use in educational and experimental work in
night photography?There is one K-19
camera, two intervalometers, two spare
condenser banks for D-2, and several other
small items here at MIT?I suggest that this
material likewise be permanently assigned to
the institute for the educational and
development projects, which will
undoubtedly come up in the future.95
Harold Edgerton enjoyed his work and also the people with whom he worked. From the way he
conducted research to how he presented his work to actually working with people Edgerton
continued his style from his pre-war years. His working style during the war definitely
contributed to his overall success.
With the end of World War II in 1945, Edgerton ended his involvement with his main wartime
project, the nighttime aerial flash. However, the work he did during the war had the effect of
increasing the magnitude and scale of his technology, broadening the range of applications that
he applied it to, and further expanding and devloping the methods with which he did his work.
In addition, his wartime work in many ways shaped and defined over the trajectory of much of
his work after the war, especially by creating networks that stuck with Doc in the post-war era
and shaped a significant part of his work till 1963.
POST-WAR
Most of the influences and changes traced in Edgerton抯 work up till this point involve the same
basic technology ?the electronic flash. From the early milk drop photographs to the aircraft
beacon, all the applications involved the short and powerful (and sometimes periodic) discharge
93 Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 53 Notebook 15, p. 6.
94 Wildes, p. 150.
95 Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 78 Folder 6.
Figure 43: An Edgerton Lecture94
37
of electricity through a gas tube, causing a bright illumination. The
period of time towards the end of the war and following the war
represents a significant deviation from this model. He delved into
applications that did not necessarily involve commercial, artistic, or


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