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代写英国硕士论文-HAROLD EDGERTON IN WORLD WAR II( The Structure of E(2)

时间:2012-05-23 14:02来源:未知 编辑:留学生作业 点击:
Figure 36: Lab Set up for Gun Shots .......................................................................................................................................... 31 Figure 37: MIT from ab

Figure 36: Lab Set up for Gun Shots .......................................................................................................................................... 31
Figure 37: MIT from above......................................................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 38: Stonehenge Night Photographs. From the Ground, Illuminated from Above (left) and an Aerial View
(right)............................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Figure 39: Flash Type D-2........................................................................................................................................................... 33
Figure 40: Aerial Electronic Flash Control Unit..................................................................................................................... 34
Figure 41: D2 Flash Unit in an A-20 Plane Described.......................................................................................................... 35
Figure 42: Edgerton on the field - Britain................................................................................................................................. 35
Figure 43: An Edgerton Lecture................................................................................................................................................. 36
Figure 44: An Atomic Bomb Explosion...................................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 45: Edgerton, Grier, and Germeshausen...................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 46: Wartime Network: Los Alamos, Raytheon, and Edgerton .................................................................................. 38
Figure 47: Grier, Edgerton, and Germeshausen...................................................................................................................... 39
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Comparison of Flash Bomb and Electronic Flash................................................................................................... 21
Table 2: Specifications of Three Major Edgerton Flash Units .............................................................................................. 24
Table 3: Specifications of Edgerton Flash Units Modified from D-2................................................................................... 25
Table 4: Types of Planes and Flash Units They Could Carry................................................................................................ 25
4
HAROLD EDGERTON IN WORLD WAR II
INTRODUCTION
Approximately twelve years before Hitler invaded Poland and World War II erupted, Harold
揇oc?Edgerton, an avid young engineer who grew up in a small town in Nebraska, headed to
the East Coast in 1926 to begin his graduate studies in electrical engineering at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He later became a professor at MIT, co-founder of
EG&G, and owner of over 40 patents. In addition, he worked with
Jacques Cousteau, searched for the Loch Ness monster, won an
Academy Award, and was awarded the Medal of Freedom. He
photographed everything from milk drops to circus performers to
atomic explosions. Many MIT students recognize Edgerton抯 work
from the photographs hanging in the corridors of the Institute, such
as hooting the Apple?in Figure 1. Although many consider his
work art, he said, onmake me out to be an artist. I am an
engineer. I am after the facts. Only the facts.?
Edgerton possessed a keen interest in science and engineering. His unparalleled passion to
master the unknown in these fields is what remained constant throughout his prolific career. In
his unpublished autobiography, he recalled that one his most memorable moments was when he
built his first radio during his early childhood. Even as a child, he had the gift for creating and
building. Whether it was building a radio or making breakthroughs in flash photography, which
is what he is most recognized for, Edgerton always put tremendous effort in his work. Today, he
is often recognized for his fascinating photographs of falling milk drops and speeding bullets.
This is just one dimension of Edgerton research and accomplishments, but it has stolen the
public spotlight. The purpose of this project history is to shed light on Edgerton and his
research beyond what is conveyed by these wonderful photographs, by
examining his work around the World War II time period. The story
begins in the late 1920 at MIT.
Harold Edgerton was first introduced to stroboscopy while doing his
doctoral thesis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Through
his research in stability of synchronous motors, he discovered that he
could visually observe changes in angular motion due to disturbances
of the system by using stroboscopic light. Edgerton was able to detect
changes in the rotor抯 rotation when the transmission lines connected
to the generator were perturbed (Figure 3). This breakthrough helped
him realize the tremendous power of strobe lights in allowing the
human eye to view high-speed motion that had never before been
observed. By 1937, Edgerton had already achieved a string of new
2 Harold E. Edgerton, Stopping Time (New York, NY : H.N. Abrams, 1987), 18.
3 Harold Edgerton and James Killian, Moments of Vision: The Stroboscopic Revolution in Photography (Cambridge:
The MIT Press, 1979), 4.
Figure 1: Shooting the Apple1
Figure 2: A Milk Drop3
5
innovations using strobe photography to capture fast
motion. He utilized his resources at MIT to further
develop his strobe technology. Several other
manufacturing and scientific laboratories at MIT
turned to Edgerton to help them capture fast motion
and effectively freeze time during this time period.
During the 1930s, he was developing a range of
technologies including the strobe, the multi-flash,
and the sensitometer for light measurements. As he
shifted his focus towards more artistic applications
of his tools outside of the lab setting, he faced
obstacles in taking pictures in uncontrolled conditions where weather and light conditions
became a concern. In these initial endeavors, Edgerton could not get enough reflection intensity
because the light from his flash was absorbed by particles in the open air.6 These outdoor
conditions decreased the effectiveness of his
method, which had been very successful in taking
close up photographs like the milk drop shown in
Figure 2. Compared to the lab (Figure 4) and
industrial settings, photography in an
uncontrolled outdoor environment proved to be a
challenge.
The true test came, however, in 1939 when Major
George Goddard of the Air Force presented
Edgerton with a project to develop nighttime
aerial photography for reconnaissance endeavors.
The war mobilization effort brought tremendous
time constraints to Edgerton抯 aerial photography
research. He needed to make his aerial
photography flash units reliable, and more importantly, he had to develop them quickly during
these times of international crisis. His involvement in World War II ultimately expanded the
scope of applications for his strobe technology, caused him to take his technology out of the
laboratory setting, and introduced him to research in the area of national security after the war
ended. In addition, there was a big change in scale and magnitude of the units he built during the
war.
This project history will bring to the surface lines of influence World War II had on Harold E.
Edgerton. The influences will be traced as Edgerton抯 work progressed into the war era,
followed by his work during the war and his post-war pursuits. As shown in the timeline below,
a window of Edgerton抯 life between 1927 and 1963 is studied to understand these influences
from the beginning of his inventions. The period from 1927 to 1939 is the pre-war era, when
4 Edgerton, Moments of Vision
5 http://web.mit.edu/museum/exhibits/flashinsp.html
6 Harold Edgerton, 揅ircus,?National Geographic Magazine, 20 October 1947 : 304-308. Harold Edgerton Papers.
MC 25. Institute Archives and Special Collections, MIT Libraries, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Box 105 Folder 33.
Figure 3: Edgerton Observing a Motor with
a Strobe4
Figure 4: Doc in the MIT Strobe Lab5
6
Edgerton invented the electronic control of flash duration and electronic triggering of the flash.
He perfected his technology in this time period through many engagements in the academic and
industrial world.
The years from 1939 to 1944 were the active war years, when Edgerton served the Air Force
with the technologies and competencies he developed during pre-war years and built upon them
immensely. His experiences in these years were very influential on his research and shaped the
trajectory his work would take. Between 1944 and 1947, Edgerton remained involved with the
Army through his research at MIT. In 1947, Edgerton founded his company with two other
partners and started his intense work with nuclear efforts in the United States. In 1963, after
being involved with many military applications, Edgerton ended all association with such work


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