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代写英国硕士论文-HAROLD EDGERTON IN WORLD WAR II( The Structure of E(4)

时间:2012-05-23 14:02来源:未知 编辑:留学生作业 点击:
between January 1933 and October 1935. He mentioned 26.6% of his work is for clients in 12 Harold E. Edgerton and James R. Killian Flash! Seeing the Unseen by Ultra High-Speed Photography, (Boston: Ch

between January 1933 and October 1935. He mentioned 26.6% of his work is for clients in
12 Harold E. Edgerton and James R. Killian Flash! Seeing the Unseen by Ultra High-Speed Photography, (Boston:
Charles T. Branford Company, 1954), 132.
13 Christophe Lecuyer, "The making of a science based technological university: Karl Compton, James Killian, and
the reform of MIT, 1930-1957", p. 157.
14 General Radio Experimenter Newsletter, Vol 10, No.3 August 1935. Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 70 Folder 3.
15 Wildes,147.
16 Wylie, Francis. Unpublished article for Smithsonian. Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 5, Folder 1, p. 3
Figure 7: The Thread
Machine12
Figure 8: The Strobotac 14
10
educational fields. The remaining clients are in industry, with 17.1%
in general machinery, 9.6% in automotive and engine, 7.4% in
textiles, and 3.2% in metallurgy and metal products.17
With numerous successes in MIT laboratories and in industry,
Edgerton established the stroboscope as a valuable scientific tool.
However, machines were not the only subjects Edgerton was
photographing during the 1930抯. At one point, MIT Professor
Charles Stark Draper confronted Edgerton and said: 揥hy don抰 you
do something useful with it besides fooling around with motors??
The whole world is moving.?9 Edgerton heeded Draper抯 advice:
I looked around and there was a faucet right next to where I
worked. So I just moved the strobe over and took a picture of this
water coming out of the faucet. That was the first picture I ever
took except for a motor.20
Edgerton began applying his stroboscope to various fast-moving phenomena in his surroundings.
His images of speeding bullets, sporting events, and milk drops revealed that Edgerton had a flair
for applying his technologies to multiple disciplines and applications. The 揳bility to construct
fruitful analogies between fields?is an important mode of creative thinking.21 Much like
Thomas Edison, who applied his expertise in telegraphy to make improvements in his electric
light model, Edgerton used analogies with familiar devices like the motor and the strobe to deal
with specific, wide-ranging problems he encountered. In a speech to a chemistry class in 1936,
Doc explained that 搕here are a great many different ways to use the method [stroboscopic light],
and I feel that we have hardly learned how to use the tool yet.?Hence, Edgerton possessed a
remarkable ability to conceive countless design variations for various disciplines based on his
expertise in strobe photography. This unparalleled talent was one of the reasons why the
members of armed forces sought Edgerton抯 expertise to improve aerial photography.
EDGERTON扴 COGNITIVE STYLE
In addition to Edgerton抯 talent in applying his technology, his cognitive style, illustrated by his
incessant work ethic and meticulous nature, also made him a prime candidate for the aerial
national security project. He was very passionate about his work. He once said, 揑f you don抰
wake up 3 o抍lock in the morning wanting to do something then you抮e wasting your time.?
During the 1930抯 Edgerton and his colleagues diligently worked on perfecting the electronic
stroboscope. They experimented with various gases for the flash tubes in order to create a
brighter and faster flash. The nature of this work was much like Edison抯 light bulb work,
involving many trials and various materials. Edgerton also worked on triggering and timing
devices in order to provide precise control of the flash. This shows not only that he was an
17 Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 70 Folder 2.
18 Edgerton, Flash!, 130.
19 Roger Bruce (ed), Seeing the Unseen: Dr. Harold E. Edgerton and the Wonders of Strobe Alley (Cambridge: The
MIT Press, 1994), 22.
20 Exploring the Art and Science of Stopping Time: The Life and Work of Harold E. Edgerton. [CD-ROM] MIT
Press: Cambridge, 1999.
21 Paul Israel, A Life of Invention (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1998), 168.
Figure 9: Smoke through
a Fan18
11
incessant worker, but that he was also intellectually curious and creative and wanted to "get to
the bottom of things." Edgerton once said, 揑f you抮e working with anything ?anything ?you
want to understand it. You抳e got to see it and record it and learn all about it.?2
Edgerton was not a theorist, but rather worked primarily from the hands-on approach. His model
for success was trial and error. 揑f you weren't actively testing your ideas, you were wasting
time. For Doc, learning by doing was most important.?4 He was not afraid of trying things and
finding a problem, but rather embraced the findings and tried again and again until the project
was refined to his satisfaction. In a draft of his autobiography, remembering his long hours as a
technician working on power transmission poles, he writes ome of these working habits have
stood me well in my life. Whenever I have a job that must be done, I think of my linemen
friends who taught me the secret ?keep going!?He was a stickler for performance. After he
came up with the design, he had to test everything he thought up. He always wanted to get to the
very bottom of things, to understand everything about it. Edgerton was not just a genius
tinkering in his lab. At the request of others and his own intellectual curiosity, he applied his
basic idea of electronic flash to many areas.
Edgerton was also very meticulous. In the MIT Archives are around 160 boxes of his work and
personal belongings. He recorded daily his activities, ideas, and findings. For example, Figure
10 shows two pages out of his date book. Records of places he went, work he had done and even
the weather on a few days are all
written down carefully by Edgerton.
In his lab notebooks, Edgerton dated
everything he wrote down and used
the same kind of bounded and
numbered institute laboratory
notebook for his records. He wrote
everything down from names of
people he met, to the trip that he and
his graduate students took, to
circuits and ideas. Figure 11
presents a sample of the many
notebook pages found.
22 Exploring the Art and Science of Stopping Time: The Life and Work of Harold E. Edgerton
23 Harold Edgerton Papers, Box 152 Folder 13.
24 Exploring the Art and Science of Stopping Time: The Life and Work of Harold E. Edgerton
Figure 10: Edgerton's Date Book 23
12
In his notebooks, Edgerton gave detailed explanations using many diagrams and photographs.
There are signatures of his colleagues and graduate students stating that they had heard and
understood Dr. Edgerton explain the concept or circuit on the page.
Doc also pasted photographs, pamphlets, and fliers onto the pages.
He worked hard, always on several projects at the same time. There
are even napkins and hotel notepad pasted onto the notebooks with
ideas and diagrams of circuits. This shows that he worked all the
time, even while traveling or eating.
Not only was Edgerton persistent, meticulous and intellectually
creative, he also knew the importance of demonstrations to the
success of his technology. Edgerton approached Kodak about
marketing his electronic flash, but Kodak refused saying they
25 Harold Edgeton Papers, Box 51 Folder1, page 22.
26 Edgerton, Flash!, 158.
Figure 11: A Page from One of Edgerton's Notebooks25
Figure 12: Boston Garden
Track Meet26
13
wouldn抰 be able to sell more than 50 of the cameras based on his
idea. So Edgerton decided to market his technology his own way,
by taking pictures of well-known events like the track meet in
Boston Garden. The picture in Figure 12 was the first flash photo
to be sent over the AP wire. Edgerton also equipped photographers
with his camera and flash so they could take stopped-motion
pictures of stars like Joe Louis in his boxing match in Figure 13.
For industrial applications of Edgerton抯 electronic flash, General
Radio agreed to build the Strobotac. The prototype was outfitted in
a suitcase, and Edgerton brought the unit with him on a family
vacation to demonstrate at factories and companies in order to build
demand. Edgerton also gave many talks and lectures to promote his stroboscope. He created an
exhibit for MIT at the New York World抯 Fair (Figure 14) exposing even more people to his
technology.
Edgerton抯 technical expertise as well as his cognitive style brought him to the attention of the
armed forces, and as a researcher at MIT, Edgerton was prepared to provide his services during
World War II.
WORLD WAR II
During the period from 1927 to 1939, Edgerton's work at MIT and in industry resulted in a
maturation of his basic stroboscopic technology and in the development of the aspects of his
cognitive style. However, this period of unencumbered research during which Edgerton
explored and developed his interests ended in 1939, when his involvement in the war effort
began. As it did for most people of academia of that era, the Second World War had a great
impact on Edgerton and marked the start of period of a change in his career. Edgerton's direct
involvement in the war effort also had a significant influence on the direction of his technology
and research and the form, which those works took. Thus, Edgerton's work during World War II
explains the new trajectories that his research followed in the aftermath of the war.
27 Edgerton, Moments of Vision, p. 82.


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