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物流在企业发展中的地位和作用:Status and role of SCM in the development of

时间:2014-05-01 09:00来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:yangcheng 点击:
物流是指利用现代信息技术和设备,将物品从供应地向接收地准确的、及时的、安全的、保质保量的、门到门的合理化服务模式和先进的服务流程。物流是随商品生产的出现而出现,随商品生产
1,Logistics concepts物流的概念

物流是指利用现代信息技术和设备,将物品从供应地向接收地准确的、及时的、安全的、保质保量的、门到门的合理化服务模式和先进的服务流程。物流是随商品生产的出现而出现,随商品生产的发展而发展,所以物流是一种古老的传统的经济活动。 
Logistics refers to the use of modern information technology and equipment, will be receiving goods from suppliers to be accurate , timely , safe, quality and quantity , door to door service model rationalization and advanced service processes. Logistics is the emergence of commodity production with the emergence , with the development of commodity production and development , so that logistics is an ancient traditional economic activities.

物流中的“物”是物质资料世界中同时具备物质实体特点和可以进行物理性位移的那一部分物质资料。“流”是物理性运动,这种运动有其限定的含义,就是以地球为参照系,相对于地球而发生的物理性运动,称之为"位移"。流的范围可以是地理性的大范围,也可以是在同一地域、同一环境中的微观运动小范围位移。物和流的组合,是一种建立在自然运动基础上的高级的运动形式。
Logistics in the "objects " is the material world also have the physical characteristics of the material and can be a part of that physical displacement of material . "Flow" is the physical movement , this movement had its limited meaning , as the reference is to the Earth , the Earth relative to the physical movement occurs , called " displacement ." Flow range can be large geographic range , it can be in the same region, the same micro-environment movement , small-scale displacement . "Objects " and " flow" , is a natural movement built on the basis of advanced forms of exercise .

其互相联系是在经济目的和实物之间,在军事目的和实物之间,甚至在某种社会目的和实物之间,寻找运动的规律。因此,物流不仅是上述限定条件下的“物”和“流”的组合,而更重要在于,是限定于军事、经济、社会条件下的组合,是从军事、经济、社会角度来观察物的运输,达到某种军事、经济、社会的要求。
Of each link between economic objectives and kind, between military objectives and kind, even among some social purpose and kind, looking for regular exercise . Therefore, the logistics is not only a combination of "objects" and "flow" under limited conditions , but more importantly because it is limited to combinations of military , economic and social conditions , from the military, economic and social point of view to observe objects transport to reach some sort of military , economic and social demands.
 
In the " Logistics term" definition of national standards that: Logistics is " receiving goods from suppliers to the process of physical movement , according to the actual needs of the transport , storage, handling, transport , packaging, distribution processing, distribution, information processing and other basic functions to implement combination . "
 
2 , the concept of the origin and development of logistics物流发展趋势
The logistics of this theoretical understanding of economic activity was first produced in 1901 . 1901 American John • F • Grew Weir (John.F.Growell) in the United States government report " Agricultural Products Circulation Industry Committee Report" for the first time discussed the impact of various factors on the circulation of agricultural products and the cost of mortgages thereon it opened the prelude to understanding the logistics activities . In 1915, Archie • Shaw (Arch. Shaw) in " a number of issues of market liquidity ," a book first discusses the role of logistics in the circulation strategy. In 1929, the famous American marketing expert Fred : E Clark (Fred.E.Clark) in his book " Principles of Marketing ", a book will be incorporated into the research areas of logistics business activities in the market , and pointed out that the logistics are in circulation subsidiary function.
 
With the development of the understanding of the logistics activities and theoretical studies , the logistics concept evolved and continue to develop.
 
According to the Japanese Logistics Management Association records, Japan after the 1950s , the economy has recovered to the level before World War II . Invest in large-scale enterprise equipment and renovation , technology has improved , productivity increased significantly . 1955 established the Productivity Center , the group in order to improve production efficiency circulation to ensure the smooth running of the economy and development , organized by the Izawa Michio a large delegation headed in the fall of 1956 the United States examines the logistics . Japan was not the "logistics " of the word , the name of the delegation as " distribution technology professional mission ." The delegation during the United States, Mr. famous American professor Ken Basi mentioned, the reason why the United States for 30 years successfully developing the national economy , one of the reasons is that only value productivity but also to the efficiency of distribution . U.S. industry truly recognize the importance of logistics base after 1950 , has been valued at just before this sale, only the transport, storage, packaging, handling and other logistics activities as a sales aid activities. Japanese technical mission also found in circulation in the United States , Japan, was originally known as the flow technology transportation, packaging and other activities, the Americans called Physical Distribution (PD). After returning to Japan, the delegation raised the attention of the logistics Bianxiang government proposal and the industry set off a PD Enlightenment . Established within the Japan Management Association of PD research , inviting Mr. plain straight ( Institute of successive loading , unloading , president of the Japanese Association , known as the "Father of the logistics of the " Japan) as president PD seminars held monthly ; in circulation economic Research Institute , Japan authoritative scholar Professor Lin Zhouer logistics , also organized PD Research Council, and actively carry out various forms of enlightenment and education . After eight years of efforts, the Japanese government finally began in 1964, attracted the attention of the PD . MITI invited several times to go straight plain Mr. PD importance of government agencies , government officials lectures . In July, MITI decided to discussing the logistics budget , worried that the Japanese news media reported speaking PD did not understand , then invited Mr. plain straight with ninety Mr. Yamauchi ( Nippon Express Co. Senior Managing Director ) deliberations . Yamauchi Senior Managing considered PD in "P", ie Physical here is not "material " means , but " physical " means , Distribution of " circulation " means, so the PD should be translated as " physical circulation" , but feel as a noun, " physical circulation" word too much, for too long, had to shrink as the "material flow ." Thus, " the flow of things ," the new word in the whole Japanese media published . Since then, the "material flow " increasingly well-known in Japan, well known. Committee structure within the industry set up a " matter of circulation branch ." 1970 founded one of Japan's largest logistics group called " objects Dealers Association of Japan ." In the same year set up a similar organization to another Japanese logistics , Logistics conferences in Japan Logistics Management Agreement will be held every year called "national circulation conference matter ." After 1970 a lot of people also feel that "things flow " is also a bit long , so they simply referred to as the "logistics " of the. " Logistics " is the word still in use in Japan.
 
China's logistics concept in the early 1980s by two ways incoming from abroad . One is with the introduction of marketing theory passed from Europe , because Europe marketing theory involves Physical Distribution. The second is the direct introduction of the " logistics " concept from Japan. To the current definition of logistics theory mostly learn from Japan that is of material from logistics providers to those who need physical movement, including in the provider 's physical movement inside the main value is to create time and space value logistics activities on specific meaning , different countries , different agencies and different researchers have different interpretations , but as time progresses , the concept and meaning of logistics continues to develop . The origin and evolution of the concept of integrated logistics , logistics in this can be defined as: logistics is to meet the customer's needs at the lowest cost, through transport, storage, distribution, etc., to achieve raw materials , semi- finished goods and related information from plan origin of goods to the consumer of goods carried , implementation and management of the entire process. Logistics components: transportation, distribution, warehousing , packaging, transportation and handling of goods, distribution processing, and related logistics information and other links .
 
3 , logistics type物流类型
Socio-economic activities in the field of logistics and everywhere , and many have their own characteristics in the field of logistics activities has its own characteristics , although logistics basic elements are present, but the basic elements in common, but due to different objects logistics , logistics purposes different logistics range of different areas , the formation of different types of stream.


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