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英国课程作业样例 领导理论与模型

时间:2014-11-14 09:35来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:pesix3 点击:
领导是一个激励或影响一群人去做或正在做更有效和高效的事的过程,要做一个领袖就必须有激励或影响他人的能力。
课题1:
 
领导的定义:
 
领导有很多不同的定义。但简单来说,领导是一个激励或影响一群人去做或正在做更有效和高效的事的过程。要做一个领袖就必须有激励或影响他人的能力。事实上,领导者和追随者都用领导作为一个激励和影响他人达到组织目标的过程。
 
在不同行业,领导和管理之间存在着更多的相似性比如:管理者和领导者都应该具备激励和影响人的能力。领导和管理的过程都是人为完成的。领导和管理的主要目的是有效地完成目标。管理的活动和领导的功能有很多相似之处。但领导与管理之间还是有很多不同之处。英国航空企业的经理应该有管理和领导能力,这意味着他应该拥有领导技巧,因为作为一名经理,他扮演着管理和领导的角色。但是领导者并不意味着能扮演好管理者的角色。
 
领导理论和模型:
 
有很多关于领导理论,比如:特质理论,权变理论,行为理论,参与式理论,情境理论。这些理论描述如下:
 
Task 1:
 
Definition of leadership:
 
Leadership can be defined through different ways. But in simple, leadership is the process of motivating or influencing the group of people to do something or doing their work more effectively and efficiently. To be a leader, a person must have the ability to motivate or influence other people. In fact, leaders and followers use the leadership as a process of motivating and influencing others for gaining the objectives of an organization.
 
There exist more similarities between leadership and management in different sector such as: motivating or influencing people and these are done both by manager and also leader. The process of leadership and management are done with the people. The main purpose of leadership and management is to accomplish the goal effectively. There are many activities of management which are similar with the function of leadership. But some dissimilarity is existed between leadership and management. A manager of British Airways should have the ability to lead to other that means he should has the skill of leadership because as a manager he plays the role of managerial and also leader. But the leader doesn't need to play the role of manager.
 
Leadership theories and models:
 
There are lots of theories regarding the leadership. Such as: trait theories, contingency theory, behavioural theory, participative theory, situational theories. These theories are described below:
 
Behavioural approach:
 
In case of behavioural leadership, the Ohio State Studies uses the questionnaire on leadership behaviour and conduct a sample survey through this questionnaire on different school, manufacturing companies or leaders of students. After completing the survey, the studies of Ohio State get the two different views of leadership which identifies the roles and responsibilities of leaders. These two aspects are: the leadership behaviour which is task oriented and another one is consideration. First one that is task oriented behaviour mainly consist the activities of directing, monitoring and designing the employees work and the consideration implies the leaders behaviour or concern towards their welfare, help them and monitoring their task accomplishment.
 
Contingency approach:
 
Contingency approach is also called situational approach. This approach is also concentrated on the team work and indicated to the activities of the leader to motivate his subordinates to work as a group and this group work or the leaders' orientation on this is more effective. Contingency theories include Path goal, situational theory etc. and also the contingency theory of Fiedler.
 
According to Fiedler contingency theory, the role of leader should be task- oriented in both the situation of favorable or unfavorable. But this theory was not clearly defined about the style of leadership. Path goal theory indicated to the performance of subordinate that is their experience, performance, their skills and ability etc. and to the working environment which is related to style of group work, authority system, quality of task etc.
 
Impact of leadership styles:
 
Two different styles of leadership:
 
There are various styles of leadership which are used in different situations within the organization and the examples of these styles of leadership are: autocratic leadership, bureaucratic leadership, charismatic, democratic or participative, laissez faire, task oriented and transactional leadership etc. Among these forms of leadership styles, here I make comparison among the autocratic and democratic leadership.
 
1. Autocratic leadership:
 
Transactional leadership with an extreme form is considered as the autocratic leadership where absolute power has been contained by the leaders to direct their worker or subordinates or team. Little opportunities are getting by the members of staff and team in order to suggestion making which is related with the best interest of the team or organization. It has been intended by many people to treat in this way of liking by them. Hence, the situations of high level absenteeism and the turnover of staff within the organization are leaded by the autocratic leadership. Therefore, effectiveness of this style of leadership is shown on the job of routine and unskilled work, the reason of which is that disadvantages can be outweighing by the control advantages.
 
2. Democratic leadership:
 
Though, final decisions are made by the democratic leaders where other team members are invited by them to make contribution towards the process of decision making. Job satisfaction is not merely increasing by this through the involvement of the members of team, but it also provides support to skills development of the people. The team members can control their destiny by themselves through which they get motivation for working hard by getting the financial reward. The reason of which is time is needed to make participation of the members of team and may be more time is needed but the better result can be come. The situation on when this approach is used, in the time of working on a team as required and when quality gets more priority rather than the market speed or the productivity of the workers.
 
Leadership Qualities:
 
Leadership skill is considered as the managerial skill which is used for the purpose of motivating the peoples of the group in order to achieve the common goal. In this competitive market, it is very much needed to contain the skill of leadership by the manager through which he or she can lead the organization effectively and efficiently. Leadership is mainly related with the capacity where leader contains the capacity to listen others' opinion and observe the activities of employees. Not only is this, in the decision making areas, the skills very much needed for the manager of an organization. One more thing is that if the employees are not motivated to do their works then the business can't be run and the manager with leadership skill can be greatly motivated to the employees of their works and try to give their best.
 
1. Forecasting and planning:
 
the leader should have clear vision in relation to the forecasting and make planning within the organization from the perspective of SMART objectives of achievable, measurable, specific, realistic, and time boundary.
 
2. Organizing:
 
leader should make the structure of the plan
several parts are made for the specific task so that it can be easily get understand by the employees and as well as can be easily accomplished
leader should determine the resources such as: the resources of human, monetary, technology and materials
make sure about the work of sensitivity and job security of the employees
 
3. Command
 
manager should have to distribute the task among the employees
manager should maintain the level of hierarchy within the organization and as well as reported this
controlling activities are taking by the manager for the purpose of leading the work force
 
4. Co-ordination
 
manager should unified and harmonised the activities of the organization and as well as organized these activities
the manager supervise the activities of the organization as coordinated and the activities and efforts are also harmonised and unified by the manager
manager should also provide the support to the organization and as well as the employees of the organization to do their job and motivate them
lead the organization and along with motivate the subordinates to give their best efforts on their job
 
Task 2:
 
For the purpose of describing the companies' present status on the current condition of economy, after that, the significant changes which have been occurred since from the last five years within these organizations and positive or negative effect of the changes on these organizations, it should be needed to analyse the internal and external factors of the organizational changes where all these subject matter are explained.


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