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英国金融学论文:商业银行与小额信贷

时间:2014-12-29 09:13来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:pesix0 点击:
三大主要类型的银行包括中央银行、商业银行和投资银行。本文将讨论,分析和理解商业银行小额信贷及其对利率的影响。

英国金融学论文:商业银行与小额信贷


这项研究包括分析和理解商业银行,小额信贷及其对利率的影响。根据牛津高级学习者的字典,利率是当你借出钱或者收回投资钱的时候所要偿还的额外的钱。利益基本上是收费资金的借贷,通常作为年度百分率。
 
根据爱康(Americans for Community Co-operation in Other Nations),利率是由借款人向贷款人支付作为使用出借人一段时间钱的交换。
 
银行利息是既作为支出金额来吸引存款也是发放给借款人的财务费用。消费贷款的利息必须由年度成本百分率(APR)来计算。贷款利息也可以包括年费、逾期付款费用,超过限制的费用。利率通常通过每年的资金借贷百分比来传达。利率既可以是固定的也可以是变动的。
 
银行的名称来源于意大利语,是“桌子/台/计数器”的意思。银行接受支付给贷款人或向借款人收取来自不同利率的存款,贷款;来获取利润。银行也从收取服务费用中获取盈利。三大主要类型的银行包括中央银行、商业银行和投资银行。银行也让客户通过电汇,销售处资金电子过户和自动取款机等其他支付方式来进行支付。
 
商业银行利率和小额贷款-Interest Rates On Commercial Bank And Microfinance 
 
The research includes the analyzing and understanding of commercial banks and microfinance and their impacts on interest rates. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, interest is the extra money that you pay back when you borrow money or that you receive when you invest money. Interest is basically the charge for the borrowing of money, generally conveyed as an annual percentage rate.
 
According to ACCION (Americans for Community Co-operation in Other Nations), Interest rate is the amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender’s money for a certain period of time.
 
Bank interest is on both as an amount paid to attract deposit funds and a finance charge for money loaned to borrowers. interest that is due on consumer loans must be calculated in terms of an Annual Percentage Rate (APR). Interest on loans may as well include annual fees, late payment fees, and over limit charges. Interest rate is ordinarily conveyed as a percentage per annum which is charged on money borrowed or lent. The interest rate may be fixed or variable.
 
The name bank derives from the Italian word banco which means “desk/bench/counter”. Bank accepts deposits and makes loans and derives a profit from the difference in the interest paid to lenders and charged to borrowers. Banks as well make profit from fee charged for services. The three major classes of banks include central banks, commercial banks, and investment banks. Banks also enable customer payments thru other payment methods such as telegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, and ATM.
 
A commercial bank is a type of financial intermediary and a type of bank. Commercial banking is as well known as business banking. It is a bank that provides checking accounts, savings accounts, and money market accounts and that accepts time deposits. Many commercial banks supply trust services, foreign exchange, trade financing, and international banking. Commercial banks provide different types of loans which include secured loans, unsecured loans, and mortgage loans. A commercial bank as a financial institution provides a variety of services that are helpful for business and general purpose. Now a days commercial banks are using microfinance as a part of the institution because of its benefits and the market share its gaining.
 
Microfinance refers to the provision of financial services to low income individuals/clients, also including the self employed. Microfinance loans are generally either interest free or carry interest that does not compound. Furthermore they offer flexible repayment plans. “Microfinance” by its name clearly is about more than just credit, otherwise we should always call it microcredit. Microfinance is most common in the developing world. It started in Bangladesh in the 1970s. The World Bank estimates that more than 500 million people have directly or indirectly benefited from microfinance associated operations. Microfinance provides different varieties of financial services in the developing world. People are moving to microfinance institutions day by day because of their excellent services and repayment future plans. Microfinance identified the problems relating to loans and needs of individuals or groups of a small scale. Microfinance is developing day by day in this developing world and now it is so common that everyone know about microfinance and its benefits. Microfinance has made itself very useful and common for low income clients specially the poor.
 
Today, microfinance is a dynamic sector that offers loans, provides savings and remittance services, and sells insurance to about more than 100 million of the poor. Microfinance companies have increased in complexity and multiplicity in the income levels of the customers they serve. Commercial banks face increasing competition in their traditional retail markets. This is causing margin constrict. It is as well leading forward thinking banks to discover new possible markets that can generate growth in client numbers at acceptable profit margins. As more and more commercial banks become fascinated by the thought of entering the microfinance market, the lessons learned from some of the more experienced players become useful in the decision making process. Commercial banks are investigating for themselves, and some are entering the microfinance market because they see sustainable profit and growth opportunities. Many commercial banks have already identified the business opportunities of microfinance. Commercial banks have now ventured into microfinance in many countries where microfinance is at different stages of development. Some institutions normally meet only a small portion of microcredit demand in the regions they serve. Some microfinance institutions (MFIs) have been able to overcome this situation by gradually turning themselves into commercial banks specialized in microfinance. Banks and financial institutions have been entering the microfinance market in increasing numbers, ensuing in a growing number of formal regulated institutions partially or totally moving into microfinance.
 
The central bank also called monetary authority or reserve bank as well plays an important role. The central bank has been given the authorization to conserve price stability as its primary objective and has been granted liberty from government to make sure that short term Political considerations do not interfere with attaining this objective. Central bank charges interest on the loans made to borrowers, primarily the government and to other commercial banks as it acts as a lender of last resort to the banking sector. Its main responsibilities as well include controlling money supply, subsidized loan interest rates and implementing monetary policy.
 
According to Henry C.K. Liu, “The rate at which the central bank lends money can indeed be chosen at will by the central bank; this is the rate that makes the financial headlines”. Central banks can influence market interest rates and can set rate to a fixed number. The central bank can simply announce its intention to raise or lower the relevant interest rate.
 
The structure of interest rates most frequent or common in an economy is of vital importance for economic decision making. The interest rate structure of the economy of Pakistan primarily consists of rates on banks deposits and lending schemes, yields on government securities such as treasury bills, PIBs and profit rates on national savings schemes, interest rates charged and offered by non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) and rates of return on term finance certificates (TFCs).
 
Inflation is a general increase in prices as it is when the prices of most goods and services continue to crawl upward. Basically, inflation is a sustained deterioration in the purchasing power of money. Banks try to keep the interest rates on savings accounts equal to the inflation rate. When the inflation rate rises, companies or governments issuing debt instruments would need to attract investors with a higher interest rate. Central governments use the interest rate to control money supply and, accordingly, the inflation rate. It becomes more expensive to borrow money when interest rates are high.
 
Monetary policy is also an important tool. Monetary policy is the procedure by which the central bank, or monetary authority of a country controls the money supply, availability of money, and rate of interest to achieve a set of objectives oriented towards the growth and constancy of the economy. Monetary policy is primarily associated with interest rate and credit. In some countries, the monetary authority may be able to authorize specific interest rates on loans, savings accounts or other financial assets. By raising the interest rate under its control, a monetary authority can contract the money supply, as higher interest rates promote savings and deter borrowing. Both of these effects reduce the size of the money supply. Monetary policy is contrasted with fiscal policy which pertains to government borrowing, spending and taxation. Monetary policy can be of two types as expansionary policy and contractionary policy. Expansionary policy also known as easy monetary policy, used to combat unemployment by lowering interest rates and contractionary policy also known as tight monetary policy, involves raising interest rates to combat inflation.


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