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信用社和开发银行对国家经济发展影响

时间:2015-01-02 10:35来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:pesix0 点击:
本文将对信用合作社和开发银行的定义作出说明。并概述信用社的影响和发展和开发银行对经济发展的影响。
信用合作社是一个由其成员所拥有并控制的金融合作机构。信用合作社是非营利的并为其客户提供一个安全、方便的地方来省钱,获得贷款,和比其他金融服务机构更有竞争力的利率。信用合作社的成员们分享一个共同的结合,比如他们的职业,他们生活的地方或去参加礼拜。(信用合作社联盟2004)。牙买加信用合作社联盟是一个1942年被发现包括岛上所有信用合作社的中央合作体。该联盟是一个自愿协会,由信用合作社的成员民主控制和融资。约翰彼得•沙利文作为这个联盟的建立之父,现在这个组织的目标活动包括:代表其成员通过联系政府等有关问题例如:立法,进行核心业务服务,接受来自信用合作社和其他社会合作社的存款,让其成员获得合作信用社贷款并通过组织新的信用合作社承担成员的投资。社会成员每年每个人支付10美分的费用(10 c)来享受联盟的服务。在1949年3月,联盟成立的“存款和贷款部门”要求信用社的存款金额与法定储备相等。这些信用合作社可以以每年5%的利率获得贷款来满足自己的贷款要求。[i] 之后信用合作社的个体成员根据信用合作社的建议以每年6%的利率得到贷款。(信用合作社联盟2004)。信用社的目的是提供一个广阔的服务来满足其成员的需求并且为储蓄和贷款提供一个安全的地方。
 
什么是信用合作社?-What is a credit union?
 
A credit union is a co-operative financial institution, which is owned and controlled by its members. Credit unions are not-for-profit, and exist to provide a safe, convenient place for members to save money and obtain loans and other financial services at competitive rates. Members of a credit union share a common bond, such as their occupation, where they live or attend church. (Credit Union League 2004). The Jamaica Credit Union League, a co-operative central body embracing all the credit unions in the island was founded in 1942. The League was a voluntary association, which was democratically controlled and financed by its member credit unions. With the establishing of this League headed by Father John Peter Sullivan, the Movement now had an organization whose objectives included: representing its members by contacting the Government about issues such as legislation, conducting central business services, receiving deposits from Credit Unions and other Co-operative Societies, making loans to its member credit unions and also to undertake investments for the member credit unions by organizing new credit unions.Member societies paid fees of ten cents (10c) per annum per individual member to access the League’s services. In March, 1949 the League established the “deposit and loan section’ which required that credit unions to deposit sums equal to their statutory reserves. These credit unions could obtain loans at the rate of 5% per annum to meet their own lending demands. [i] Later individual members of credit unions were granted loans on the recommendations of their Credit Unions at the rate of 6%per annum. (Credit Union League 2004). The aim of the Credit Union is to provide a wide range of services to meet the needs of its members and to provide a safe place for savings and completive interest rates on loans.
 
什么是开发银行?-WHAT IS A DEVELOPMENT BANK?
 
The Development bank of Jamaica was established on April 1, 2000 (Development bank of Jamaica, 2007) there was a merger between two owned Government of Jamaica institutions, which were the Agricultural Credit Bank and the National Development Bank Of Jamaica Limited. The Agricultural Credit Bank and the National Development Bank were founded in 1981.The Development Bank of Jamaica was governed by the Ministry of Finance and Planning and the board members, which was appointed by the Ministry. According to Development bank of Jamaica (2007) it is stated that the bank provides the following: it facilitates development financing to the productive sectors primarily in the areas of agriculture, agro-processing manufacturing, information processing tourism, service and mining and quarrying. It helps with credit principally through a wide range of Approved Financial Institution (AFIs), including Commercial and Merchant Banks, People’s Cooperative Bank; Credit Unions are private sectors development financial institution. They invested in the agricultural, manufacturing, tourism, agro-processing, quarrying and mining and services sectors. They also play a critical role in non-credit activities principally with respect to the upgrading of the People’s Cooperative Banks as well as providing assistance to a number of sub-sectors which have faced difficulties. With these roles the development banks seeks to endorse economics development within the developing countries.
 
iiCaribbean Development Bank intends to be the leading catalyst for development resources into the Region, working towards the systematic reduction of poverty through social and economic development. They assist with borrowing member countries to the use of their resources, developing their economies and increase production and trade. They encourage private and public investment, development of the financial upturn in the region and helps business activities and expansion. Developments Banks aimed to mobilize their resources from both within and outside the region for development. These banks provide technical assistance to its regional borrowing members, support regional and local financial institutions and a market for credit savings. They also support and stimulate the development of capital markets within their region.
 
Their vision is to facilitate economic growth, development, job creation resulting in an improved for all Jamaicans. To be an innovative financier of economic activity, they offer a supportive of national development, to provide the best place for work and to be a world class development bank.
 
信用社的影响和发展-CREDIT UNION’s IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT
 
Credit Unions vary from Banks and other financial institutions, their members have ownership of the credit union and they elect their board of directors in a democratic one-person-one vote system irrespective of the amount of money that has been invested in the credit union. Credit Unions contribute to economic development through the wider community, mobilizing significant volumes of savings. (Journal of Public Sector Policy Analysis 2009) Research has confirmed that credit unions contribute positively to national development in Barbados and other Caribbean territories. (Roland, 2009). Credit Unions continue to be a prominent source of growth within the financial sector and therefore their macroeconomic significance has increased considerably. They have transformed the social and economic status of several members, enabling them to advance from the underprivileged class to the home owner class, by providing affordable terms and conditions for access to loans to finance a wide range of programmes. This paper seeks to determine the contribution of credit unions to national development.
 
Research by the Centre for Economic Development and Area Regeneration (2000) concluded that credit unions start up or operate using the ‘ethical approach’, which focuses on having a strong community base with much volunteer involvement developing at ‘its own pace’, have been relatively ineffective. In response to some of the issues raised, there has been a gradual shift in the British credit union movement to ‘new model development‘(Jones, 2001). Jones believes that new model development is based on seven doctrines which will bring economic success, serving the financial needs of the population at large, maximizing savings, portfolio diversification, operating efficiency, financial discipline, self-governance and assimilation. Evidence of accepting the new model can be seen in the promotion of new business oriented approach to credit union development. Dr. Yaw Forkuoh, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Pharmacy of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), (Ghanaian Jounnal, 2009) stated that credit unions are vital institutions which help to decrease poverty among people in society. He had appealed to the government to channel Poverty Alleviation Funds through credit unions for the distribution to people as loans, to better improve their income and way of life. He said that loan delinquency has been a serious issue facing the credit unions and asked the management of the unions to take the necessary steps to ensure that are been loans granted to their members will be paid on time for others also to benefit from it. Dr. Yaw Forkuoh, believes that the credit union is accessible by its member where loans are concerned which will better develop the economy.
 
Credit Unions contribute and support other local organizations in concreting ways to carry out community projects. These projects have a “community development” focus on building capacity, resilience, and strength in the community and not necessarily any direct economic component. These are resources committed for all different types of activities include financial resources, human resources, equipment, space, and more. Involvement in community development is important; it does not yield a quantifiable return for the credit union or the local economy. With such involvement will strengthen the name and reputation of the credit union as a community leader and contributor.
 
Schulze-Delitzsch and Raiffeisen stated that the Credit unions are not conventional financial institutions. The kind of development for which they are uniquely well-suited is not conventional economic development, but community economic development, which is based in and draws on the community’s needs and resources, the same way a credit union does, but by contributing to communities it can be led to economic development. Credit unions have enhanced local economies by increasing the availability of small loans and reduce to meet its members borrowing costs. But where there is a need, credit unions still contain their original potential to be agents for business development.


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