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代写英国作业:人力资源经理在招聘和选拔中的作用

时间:2018-06-12 08:35来源:www.ukassignment.org 编辑:cinq 点击:
本文是英国留学生作业范文,主要内容讲述人力资源管理的相关内容,以及人力资源经理在招聘和选拔中的作用。
要分析人力资源经理在招聘和选拔中的作用,首先要了解招聘和选拔是什么,它在哪些方面影响组织的目标。当一个员工离开一个组织时,它不仅影响组织,而且影响整个员工和整个社会。组织的生产率和效率取决于其劳动力的质量或人力资本,并且普遍认为其固定资本相对增加。人力资源经理应制定招聘和选拔的战略方法。战略人力资源管理的目标,“以提供组织竞争优势的方式获取人力资源配置和分配”。招聘和选择是一系列的人力资源实践的要素之一,需要被组织整合成一个连贯的包,以支撑合作战略的交付。招聘和选拔是人力资源在组织中的主要功能。招聘和选拔是“组织征求、联系和关心潜在的被任命者的过程,然后确定任命他们中的任何一个是否合适”。
 
To analyse the role of HR managers in Recruitment and Selection, it essential to firstly understand what is Recruitment and Selection, in what ways does it affect the goals of the organisations. When an employee leaves an organisation, it affects not only the organisation but also the individual employee and society as a whole (Mobley, 1982, p. 15- 31, cited in Morrell et al., 2001, p. 220). The productivity and efficiency of organisations depend upon the quality of their workforce or 'human capital' and there is a general agreement that its fixed capital is relatively increasing (Wolf and Jenkins, 2006). The HR managers should develop strategic methods for Recruitment and Selection. Schmitt and Chan (1998:239), defined the goals of strategic HRM, 'to acquire deploy and allocate human resources in ways that provide the organisation with a competitive advantage' (Wolf and Jenkins, 2006). Recruitment and Selection is one of the element of an array of HR practices that needs to be integrated into a coherent bundle by organisations in order to support the delivery of cooperate strategy. Recruitment and Selection is the main function of Human Resourcing in organisations (Newell and Rice, 1999, cited in Millmore, 2003, p. 8). Recruitment and Selection as 'The processes by which organizations solicit, contact, and interest potential appointees, and then establish whether it would be appropriate to appoint any of them' (Watson, 1994, p.185 cited in Bratton and Gold, 1999, p.192).
 
'Recruitment involves the utilization of organisational practices to influence the number and types of individuals who are willing to apply for job vacancies (Rynes, 1991; Rynes & Cable, 2003). Recruitment can focus on internal labour market (like pursuing staff already employed by the organization) or external labour market (like pursuing applicants from outside the organization). Internal candidates can be recruited through internal job postings, word-of-mouth or internship programs'. (Casper) Organisations are undergoing changes in terms of expansion-beyond the local to national and international frontiers. Therefore, recruitment and selection processes used by organisations are becoming more sophisticated. Selection is a process through which a firm chooses an applicant from a pool of applicants for a post, within the organisation by using techniques to decide which applicant is best suited for the vacancy in question by contrast recruitment involves choosing an applicant from an external pool by actively soliciting applications from potential employees. Recruitment is a positive activity where the employers sell themselves into the labour market to increase the pool of deserving candidates, from which employees are chosen. Selection can be viewed as a negative activity as it involves choosing the best candidate. The goal of recruitment and selection processes is to judge the psychological difference between individuals and its relationship to following job performance. The recruitment and selection process has two main characteristics - attraction which determines how an individual becomes an applicant it signifies the two-way power relationship involved in selection and assessment which refers to assessment of application within a work context this is done by using tools like references, curriculum vitas, autobiographical application blanks, interviews, personality psychometric tests and work-sample methods (Searle, 2003). Assessment of suitability for organisational needs reflect priorities in an employer's agenda, rather than a potential employee's concerns (Schuler et al., 1993, cited in Ramsay et al., 1999, p. 65).
 
In the 1980s, major changes took place in regards to HR practices within the organisations. This was a result of increasing awareness and impact of HR on the firms. During this period the HR policies emerged as a lever for organisations, assisting them in repositioning or strengthening, their place within a particular sector. As a part of resultant changes, selection and recruitment processes were recognised as critical components in successful change management (Iles and Salaman, 1995, p. 203). The integration and internal consistency of HR systems is important for organisational success (Legge, 1995). Recruitment and Selection is one of the tools within the HR strategy.
 
For an HR manager hiring competent people is of paramount importance which can be attained by using effective recruitment and selection processes, with the goal of choosing the right candidate and rejecting the wrong. For example: The Telebank case study (Korczynski et al., 1999, cited in Callaghan and Thompson, 2002), reflects a shift in trend from manufacturing to service sector contribution in the overall economy. In service sector, work and empathy towards the customer plays a prime role in recruitment and other HR processes. It's therefore important for the HR Manager to recruit a staff with the desired attitudinal and behavioural characteristics, induct them in the company's philosophy and retain them. As an HR Manager it is essential to note that selection frequently focuses on attitudes to flexibility and service to customer than skill or qualification levels of the candidate (Redman and Mathews, 1998, p. 60 cited in Callaghan and Thompson, 2002). Also attracting good talent means increase in remuneration rate, better pay package, working conditions, job security and internal career mapping (Arthur, 1994; Appelbaum et al., 2000; Batt et al., 2002, cited in Smith et al., 2004). Bach (2008) defines 'Recruitment' as the process of attracting people who might make an organizational contribution to fill a particular role or job.
 
Approaches to Recruitment: 招聘方法:
Internal Recruitment: Most of the private sector employers, attempt to fill vacancies internally before they consider looking for people outside the organisation (Newell and Shackleton 2000, p. 116, CIPD 2003b, p. 11). Public sector is open to advertising both internally and externally. Fuller and Huber (1998, p. 621) have identified four different forms of internal recruitment activities namely, internal promotions, lateral transfers, job rotation, re-hiring former employees. This is profitable for both the employees and the organisations. Internal recruitment is cost effective and firms do not have to advertise jobs, it can be done by using intranet services, newsletters and staff notice boards. It helps in boosting the morale of the employee, building a strong internal labour force. The organisation also maximises its return on investment in staff training, by bringing in increased motivation, deepened skills and high level of commitment, providing the organisation with a competitive edge leading to organisational effectiveness. Selection is done on the basis of the individual's merit and knowledge. The organisations express their models of employee characteristics and the behaviour required of potential employees through competency frameworks (Roberts, 1997). These frameworks help the organisations to recruit and select the suitable people through sophisticated techniques. There are certain negative aspects of internal recruitment as well; if all the recruitment to all the positions is done internally, it would lead to stagnation, there would be lack of originality and a fall in the organisation's knowledge base. It might so happen that the best suited candidate for the job is not currently working for the organisation. Internal recruitment adds to the long term imbalances of the workforce, the ethnic minorities who are not well represented will be subjected to inequality. IRS (2002d) highlights a problematic feature of internal recruitment; it includes the need of managing of situations in which candidates are unsuccessful. Turning down external candidates would not cause a problem instead turning down internal candidates would create a difficult situation which then needs careful management. Exclusive use of internal recruitment is less common in the public sector organisations, as they believe in advertising all vacancies externally. They do so because they at all levels want to reflect that their staffs reflect the make-up of the whole society. For example NHS and local governments advertise their jobs in newspapers. (Storey, 2007).
 
External Recruitment: there are lots of different approaches used to attract prospective candidates, more conventional than the other. There are five formal methods used for most of the jobs, these are, Printed media which includes national newspapers, local newspapers, trade and professional journals, magazines. External agencies which includes job centres, outplacement consultants, head-hunters, employment agencies, Forces Resettlement Agency, Recruitment consultants. Education Liaison consists of careers service, career fairs, college tutors, career advisors, student societies. Other media includes direct mail, local radio, teletext, billboards, internet, TV and cinema. Professional contacts consist of conferences, trade union referrals, suppliers, industry contacts.


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